JOURNALS OF THE MILITARY EXPEDITION OF MAJOR GENERAL JOHN SULLIVAN
AGAINST THE SIX NATIONS OF INDIANS IN 1779 WITH RECORDS OF CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIONS
Prepared Pursuant to Chapter 361, Laws of the State of New York, of 1885.
by Frederick Cook, Secretary of State
Auburn, N. Y. Knapp, Peck & Thompson Printers
[Note: Transcription is verbatim.]
Contributed for use in the USGenWeb Archives by Donna Bluemink.
HENRY DEARBORN, Lieutenant Colonel commanding the Third New Hampshire (Scammel's) Regiment. The following sketch is by Genl John S. Clark, Auburn, N. Y.:
Colonel Dearborn was born in Hampton, N. H., in March, 1751. He was a captain at Bunker Hill, and accompanied Arnold in the march through the woods against Quebec, in which expedition he was captured. He was exchanged in 1777, and soon after was appointed Major of Scammel's regiment. At Saratoga he commanded a separate battalion under General Gates, and was afterwards at Monmouth, where he distinguished himself and the regiment by a gallant charge. In 1779 Colonel Scammel was acting as Adjutant General of the army, leaving Lieut. Colonel Dearborn in command of the regiment during Sullivan's campaign. He was at the siege of Yorktown in 1781, and afterward on garrison duty at Saratoga and West Point until 1784. He served two terms in Congress, was for eight years secretary of war under Jefferson, and in the war of 1812 was senior Major General of the army. In 1822 he was minister to Portugal, from whence he returned after two years' service, and died in Roxbury, Mass., June 6, 1829. After his death, his son, Henry Alexander Sammel Dearborn, collected and arranged the valuable papers of his father, transcribed the journals, which extended through the entire period of the revolution, and added important historical sketches, the whole making forty-five large volumes handsomely bound in morocco, the exterior approximating in elegance to the inestimable value of the material within. On the death of the son, all of these, excepting seven volumes, were taken apart, and the contents, made up of valuable autograph letters of the revolutionary period, scattered to the four winds by a sale at public auction. The seven volumes, containing no autographs, were reserved at the sale and remain intact In one of these is the Journal kept during Sullivan's campaign, as  arranged by the son, but this copy differs from the original in many particulars, and includes much matter evidently obtained from other sources.
The original manuscript Journal of Sullivan's campaign, together with many other valuable original documents, are now in the possession of Charles P. Greenough, Esq., of Boston, Massachusetts, who intends to present them, through his brother William Greenough, Esq., of New York city, to the Waterloo Library and Historical Society, of Waterloo, Seneca county, N. Y. With the consent and approbation of that Society, a literal copy of the original journal has been obtained through the kindness and courtesy of Mr. Greenough, who has taken great pains to make the copy accurate, and sincere acknowledgments are due to him and also to the Waterloo Library and Historical Society, for the great favors so cheerfully bestowed.
EASTON June 17 1779
Genls Maxwells & Poors Brigades with Cols Procters Regt of Artillery ware order'd to march this day for Wyoming under the Command of the Honble Majr Genl Sullivan on an Expedition against the Savages between Wyoming & Niagara
18th The Army march'd at Sunrise proceeded 12 miles to Hilliers tavern & encamp'd Our course to day about north
19th March'd at 4 o'c'ock A M proceeded 7 miles to Brinker's Mills where there is a Magazine of Provisions kept Here we halted & drew provisions We passed this morning what is Call'd the Wind Gap of the blue mountains a narrow pass that appears as if Nature design'd it for a road into the country as it is the only place that this ridge of mountains can be passed for a very great distence After drawing provisions we march'd 9 miles to Learns tavern & encamp'd Our course to day about north
20th March'd at 9 o'clock pass'd the end of a mountain call'd Dogon point proceeded about 5 miles & encamp The hous we left this morning is the last we shall see until we git to Wyoming
21st Enter'd what is Call'd the Great Swamp proceeded 20 miles thro' a horrid rough gloomcy country the land cover'd with pine Spruce lawrel bushes & hemlock We eat breakfast at a streem call'd Tunkhannah we pass'd another call'd Tobehannah & an other the Leahigh We likewise pass'd what is called the Shades of Death a very gloomy thick part of the Swamp
22'nd. We March'd but 5 miles to a dessolate farm 7 miles from Wyoming
23'd We March'd to the Fort at Wyoming 7 miles where we found several reg'ts incamp'd which are part of our army our course the 2 last days has been about N. West The whole Country from Easton to Wyoming is very poor & barren & I think Such as will never be Inhabited it abounds with dear & Rattle Snakes The land at Wyoming on both sides the river is very fine & was very thickly Inhabited before they ware cut off by the savages 20 miles up & down the river after the Battle at this place last year in which more than 260 of the Inhabitants were Kill'd the Savages burnt & destroyed the whole country & drove off the cattle & horses & strip'ed the women & children of every comfort of life we are now incamp'd on the bank of the Susquehannah river This river is at this place about 50 rods wide & abounds with fish of various kinds Such as Shad Bass, pike, trout &c &c &c
24th We are laying still Some skattering Indians are skulking about us
25th Nothing New 26th as yesterday
 27th the 2n'd & 3'd N. Hampshire regt cross'd the river & mov'd 3 miles up to a place call'd Forty Fort on Abrahams plains & incamp'd here in the remains of a stockhead fort about 3 miles above this Fort the Battle was fought between the 2 Butlers viz Col Butler of Wyoming & the inhuman savage Butler that commanded the Indians & Tories in which 250 men were Killed & Skelp'd on our side & about 40 or 50 on the Enimies side The next day after the battle the Enimy contrary to their ingagements at the Capitulation of Forty Fort (in which was about 500 women & Children) burnt and destroyed the whole settlement.
28th We are erecting some small works for the security of our guards
29th as yesterday
30th nothing new
JULY 1st the two Tories who ware condemn'd at Easton ware orderd to be executed to day 1 of them was hung the other was pardon'd under the Gallows A number of us discover'd a fine buck to day on an Island which we surrounded & killed The army is waiting for provisions that are coming up the River.
2nd I went with Genl Poor and several other Gentlemen to day to vew the feild of action where the Battle between the 2 Butlers was fought. We found a great number of bones at & near the field of battle Among a number of skul bones that we found none was without the mark of the tommahok I saw one Grave where 73 of our men ware buried & was shewn a place wher 17 of our men after being taken ware made to set down in a ring 16 of whom they Immediately tommahawk'd the other leap'd over the ring and made his escape
3'd This is anniversary of the Battle of the two Butlers mentioned above.
4th This is the Anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence but as it is Sunday we take no other notice of it than that of having a Sermon adapt to the Occasion Col Cilley's & Courtlandt's reg'ts cross'd the river and Join'd us to day Several dear & wild turkeys have been kill'd within a day or two with which this Country abounds
MONDAY JULY 5th Genl Poor made an Entertainment for all the Officers of his Brigade to celebrate the Anniversary of the declaration of American Independence 87 Gentleman ware present at dinner after which the 13 following toasts ware drank 1—4th of July 76 the ever Memorable Patriotick Eara of American Independence 2nd The United States 3d The Grand Counsel of America 4th Gen'l Washington & the Army 5th The King & Queen of France 6th Genl Lincoln & the Southern Army 7th Genl Sullivan & the Western Army 8th May the Counsellors of America be wise and her Soldiers Invincible 9th A Successful & decisive Campaign 10th Civilization or death to all American Savages 11th the Immortal Memory of those heroes that have fallen in defence of American Liberty 12th May this New World be the last Asylum for freedom and the Arts. 13th May the Husbandman's house be bless'd with peace & his fields with plenty.
The whole was conducted with such Joy & festivity as demonstrated an Independent Elevation of Spirit on this Important & enteresting Occasion.
6th One Winslow a Soldier in the 3d N. Hampshire regt was drown'd this morning by going into bathe a very severe shower of thunder hail rain & wind came on at abt 1 P.. M. many peices of the hail ware as large as hens Eggs but of a very erregular form
7th I eat part of a fryed Rattle Snake to day which would have tasted very well had it not been snake
8th Nothing extraordinary
10th A detachment of 150 men was sent from the 2nd & 3'd N Hampshire regt under the command of Col Reid towards Easton to repare the rode & to help forward some waggons with provisions.
11th. we receiv'd our New Commissions upon the new Arrangement to day which we have been expecting for Eighteen Months I rec'd several letters from N Hampshire to day in one of which I am inform'd of being married but have not learnt to whome
12th nothing new
13 Col. Butler Misses Butler and a number of the ladies honour'd us with a visit from town this afternoon with whom we spent a very agreeable afternoon
14th nothing new
 15 we hear the Main body of the Enimy have retir'd from Kings ferry on the Hudson river but have left a post there.
16th I went with Generals Sullivan Maxwell & Poor together with a number of other Gentlemen to vew the ground where the Battle of the Butlers was fought
17th we hear the enimy are pursueing their savage plan of burning plundering & destroying defenceless towns that they have burnt fairfield Norwalk & a part of New Haven in Connecticut & Bedford in N York State These things we may thank our good friends the tories for what will not those hell hounds doo us There was a very striking instance of their more than savage barbarity in the battle of the 2 Butlers One Henry Pencel of Wyoming who was fortunate enough to make his escape from the field of Battle on to an Island in the river with one or two more without their arms near night a small party of the enimy came on to the Island the foremost of which was John Pencel brother to s'd Henry who upon discovering his brother call'd him a damned rebel & threten'd to kill him. Henry fell on his knees & begged for his life saying brother John I am in your hands I'll be your slave I'll go with you but pray spare my life we have differ'd in sentiment & have met on the field of Battle but as I am now fully in your power for God's sake don't kill me but his unatural & more than savage brother Cain like deef to all his cries & Intreaties damn'd him for a rebel deliberately charg'd his gun & shot his brother then tommahawk'd and skelped him Immediately some savages cam up and ask'd him what he had done he told them he had kill'd his brother Henry a dam'd Rebel These savages curs'd his unnatural behaveyer & threten'd to serve him the same way The above account I have from one Mr. Slocum a young fellow belonging to Wyoming who lay in the bushes so near Pencel as to hear all that passed
18th nothing extraordinary 19th do 20th Do
21st We are informed by a letter from one of Genl Washington's Aids that Genl Wain with a body of Light Infantry on the night of the 15th Inst surprised & took a small Garrison near Kings ferry on Hudsons River call'd Stoney Point the particulars have not come to hand but it is said the number of men kill'd and taken is about 600 & a quantity of Artillery & Stores &c.
22nd we have a confirmation of the news of yesterday
23d I went with several other Gentlemen 8 miles up the River to an old Settlement call'd Lackawane to fish and hunt dear where we stayed over night.
24th Came home with but few fish 70 boats ariv'd from Sunsbury with provisions and stores to day.
25th Seven men belonging to what is call'd the German regt ware sentenced by a General Court Martial to suffer death for desertion
26th we are Informed that Genl Parsons has had an Ingagement with a body of the Enimy near Wilton 7 miles from Norwalk in Connecticut and finally repuls'd them.
27th Genl Poors Brigade moov'd down the river & Join'd the Main army at what is called the town The above mentioned deserters that ware order'd to be executed to day are pardoned by the Genl who has declar'd he never will pardon another man in like circumstances
28th Col Reid arriv'd with 8o waggons with provisions and Stores from Easton. The pack Horses are destributed in the several Brigades & mark'd
29th we are inform'd that a party of Savages with some british troops have taken a small fort on the west branch of the Susquehannah near Sunsbury have plunder'd the Inhabitents of their cattle, horses & every other thing they could carry off and another party has been down to a place call'd the Minnisinks on the deleware river and have had in action with a party of our Millitia in which the Millitia were rather worsted & and lost a number of men but the Millitia being reinfors'd the enimy ware oblig'd to retreet we likewise are inform'd that Genl Clinton has moov'd up from New York & taken possession of Kings ferry again with his main body
30th the army under Genl Sullivan is order'd to March to Morrow Morning towards the Indian Settlements A very severe campaign I expect we shall have
Genl Sullivan's army at Wyoming consists of the Troops following viz Maxwells  Brigade consisting of Ogdens Datens Shreefes and Spencers regts—Poors Brigade consisting of Cilleys Reids Scammel's & Courtlands regts—Hands Brigade consisting of the German regt Shot's Corps Spoldens Independant Company & Hubley's regt from Penselvania
WYOMING JULY 31st 1779 This day the army Marches for Teoga in the following order
NOTE—The foregoing sketches of Order of March and Order of Battle are just as found in the journal and are as originally issued by Genl. Sullivan's order of the 24th August the Brigades of Poor and Maxwell changed places in conformity to a previous arrangement.
 HEAD QUARTERS EASTON MAY 24, 1779
When the army shall be fully assembled the following Arrangements are to take place Light corps commanded by Genl Hand consisting of Armandts corps Sholts Do 6 companies of Rangers Wm. Butlers regt Morgans Corps and all volunteers that may Join the army
Maxwells Brigade to consist of Ogdens Daytons Shreeves & Spencers Regts and form the left of the front line
Poors Brigade to consist of Cilleys Reids Scammels & Cortlandts Regts to form the right of the front line
Clintons Brigade to consist of late Livingstons Dubois Ganseworths & Oldens Regts to form the 2nd line or Reserve
The right of the first line to be cover'd by 100 men draughted from Maxwells Brigade the left to be covered by 100 men draughted from Poors Brigade Each flank of the 2nd line to be cover'd by 50 men draughted from Clinton's Brigade The Flanking division on the right to consist of Hartlies & Dattens regt with a draught from the line of 100 men The flanking division on the left to consist of the German Batln & 100 men draughted from the line. The order of Battle & the Order of March are represented On the Annexed plan and are to be adher'd to at all times when the situation of the Country will possibly admit & where a deviation takes place it must be carried no further than the necessity of that time requires
The Order of March the light corps will advance by the right of Companies in files & keep at least one mile in front Maxwells Brigade will advance by its right in files sections or platoons as the country will admit Poors Brigade will advance by its left in the same manner Clintons Brigade will advance by the right of regts by platoons, sections or files as the Country will admit. All the covering parties and flanking divisions on the right will advance by the left & those on the left by the right. The Artillery & pack horses will March in the Center Should the Army be attacked in front while on its march the light Corps will Immediately form and repulse the Enimy. The flanking divisions will Indeavor to gain the flank & rear of the Enimy while the line is forming The pack horses will in all cases fall into the position represented on the annexed plan Should the Enimy attack on either flank the flanking division attacked will form a front and sustain the attack til reinforced in which case a part of the light troops is to be Immediately detach'd to gain the Enimies flank & rear the covering parties of the 2'nd line will moove to gain the other flank Should the Enimy attack our rear the 2nd line will face & form a front to the Enimy the covering parties of the 1st. line will moove to sustain it while the flanking Divisions face about and Endeavour to gain their flanks & rear Shoould the light troops be driven back they will pass thro the Intervals of the main Army & form in the rear Should the Enimy in an Ingagement with the army when form'd endeavour to turn either flank the covering parties will moove up to lengthen the line and so much as may be found necessary from the flanking divisions will display outwards to prevent the attempt of the Enimy from succeeding the light Corps will have their advance & flank guards at a good distance from the Main body the Flanking Divisions will furnish flank guards & the 2'nd line a Rear Guard for the Main Army When we find the light Corps engag'd with the Enimy in front the front of the pack horses will halt and the rear close up while the collumns moove in a small distance Close & display Columns which will bring the horses in the position represented in the plan for order of Battle Should the attack be made on either flank or Rear the horses must be kept in the position they are in at the commencement of the attack unless other orders are then given
JULY 31 1779 After passing the forenoon at very severe fatigue in loading the boats & pack horses the army movd from Wyoming at 2 o'clock P. M with 120 boats about 1200 pack horses & 700 beef cattle We proceeded to Lachawanea 10 miles & Encamp'd here  has been a very pleasant settlement the land is very fertile & level the Inhabitants being drove off & the place dessolated by the Savages last year it is now uninhabited We have had a remarkable rainey time for 10 days past & still continues
AUGUST 1st SUNDAY As the boats didnt get up last night the army did not march till 4 o'clock P M Proceeded 7 miles the way most horribly rough we found great difficulty in getting forward the pack horses it was late in the evening before we arriv'd at our Incamping ground Our rear Guard did not arive til near day brake We incamp'd on a fine peice of Intervale which has been Inhabited but shared the fate of Wyoming last year This place was Formaly Inhabited by savages, was called Quilutimack
2nd The army lay still to repair the pack sadles &c &c We took a number of fine fish with a sean to day Such as bass pike chubbs &c &c
3'd The army march'd at 7 o'clock proceeded 12 miles to some dessolated fields at the mouth of a creek called Tunkhannunk we had much better marching to day
4th Marched at 6 o'clock proceeded 17 miles to a dessolated farm call'd Vanderlips which is an excellent tract of land we passed several dessolated farms to day one of which was on a Streem 5 miles from where we incamp'd last night call'd Meshoping the land we have marched over to day is very Mountainous
5th Marched at 10 o'clock proceeded to Wyolusing 10 miles This has been an old Indian Town Situate on an Excellant tract of Intervale land about 80 families of this town were christianis'd by a Moravian parson & form'd into a regular town in the center of which they had a chappel The land on this River being purchas'd by the Connecticut Company in the year 1770 or 71 the savages moov'd off further westward & left this place in possession of a few Americans who sence the commencement of this war have left it & Join'd the Enimy. This Town stood on a point of land round which the river makes a very large bow or turn above the town a large streem emties into the river called Wyolusing The land here is covered with a very large burthen of English Grass on the Intervale near this place are much the largest trees I ever saw the growth is Black walnut & buttenwood.
6th we remain at Wyolusing to day to recruit our horses and cattle
7th The weather being rainey we lay still
8th The Army march'd at 6 o'clock I had the flank Guard passed Several high mountains & several dessolate farms proceeded to what is call'd the Standing Stone bottom where there is a learge body of excellent land that has been Improv'd Genl Sullivan is so unwell that he is not able to command the army and is oblig'd to proceed by water
9th March'd at 7 o'clock proceeded 3 miles to a dessolate farm on the mouth of a streem call'd Wesawking here we halted an hour then proceeded 12 miles to a large body of clear Intervale cover'd with high Grass & incamp'd This place is within 4 miles of Tiogea & has been inhabited by both white People & Savages & is Call'd Sheshekonunk The land we march'd over this day is very fine indeed Genl Sullivan is not so unwell as he has been & has resumed the command of the army again The weather being very warm & our march very severe many of our men falter'd to day
10th The army lay still The Genl & a number of field Officers are reconnoitering the country and endeavoring to find a place where the army can ford the river. The General Course from Wyoming to Tiogea is near North
11th The Army forded the river where the water was so deep and rappid that we found great difficulty in fording After fording the river proceeded 3 miles & crossing the west branch of the river called the Tiogea branch ariv'd at Tiogea Setuate on the point where the west branch forms a Junction with the Susquehannah On both sides of the Teogea branch are very large bodies of clear Intervale cover'd with high grass where there has been a learge Indian Settlement and where Queen Hester (Queen of the Six Nations) resided until last autumn Col Hartley with a party of troops burn'd her palace Genl Sullivan has been fortunate enough to reach this place with his Army without any considerable accident happening.
12th We are beginning to erect works for the security of the troops & Stores to be left at this place The Genl receiv'd intelligence this afternoon by a Small party that had been  sent to make discoveries that the Enimy appeer to be in great confusion & about mooving from Chemong an Indian town 12 m up the Tiogea branch in consequence of which the whole army fit for duty march'd at 8 o clock P M in order to Surprise the enimy at Chemong On our march we pass'd several very difficult defiles & as the night was very dark & the path but little us'd we found great difficulty in proceeding Genl Hand with his Brigade was to go round & fall into the rode that leads from the town up the river while Genl Poor moov'd directly to the town & made the attack if he found the enimy in possession of the town at day brake we ariv'd at the Town but found it deserted only two or three Indians were seen running from the town The Town consisted of about 30 houses situate on the bank of the Tiogea Their houses ware biult with split and hew'd timber cover'd with bark There were 2 large buildings which ware said to be Publick houses There was very little left in the houses except baskets buckets & skins the houses had no chimney or flooers & ware very dirty & smookey about sun rise all the buildings ware set on fire On examination we found that a party of the enimy incamp'd about 60 rods from the town last night and from all appeerence the enemy left the town last evening Genl Hand with his brigade pursu'd the enimy about 2 miles & was fired on by a party of Indians from the top of a hill who run off as soon as the fire was return'd Genl Hand had 6 men kill'd & seven wounded three of the latter ware officers The enimy ware pursued by our troops but not overtaken We found a number of very large fields of corn in the whole about 40 acres about fit to roast which we cut down and destroy'd in doing which a party of our men ware fir'd on by a party of tories & Indians across the river who kill'd one man & wounded 4 After compleeting the distruction of the corn Town &c we return'd to Tiogea where we ariv'd at dark very much fategue'd having march'd not less than 30 miles & the weather very warm Chemong lays about N West from Tiogea
14th Nothing new
15th 1000 chosen men under the command of Gen'l Poor ar order'd to march to morrow morning up the river to meet Genl Clinton who is in his way to Join us with his Brigade & is in danger of being attackt by the Enimy before he can form a Junction with our main army I am order'd on this Command This afternoon a small party of Indians fir'd on some men who were without our guards after horses & cattle kill'd & Scalp'd one man and wounded another A party was sent out in pursute of them but could not come up with them
16th Genl Poor march'd with his detachment at 10 o'clock A M proceeded in 2 collumns 13 miles up the Susquehanna over very rough ground We encamp'd near the ruins of an old Indian Town call'd Macktowanunk The land near the river is generally good.
17th We march'd early this morning proceeded 12 miles to Owagea an Indian Town which was deserted last Spring after planting About the town is a numbar of fruit trees & many plants & hearbs that are common in our part of the country here is a learge body of clear Intervale cover'd with Grass Our march to day has been very severe & fategueng especially for the left Column (to which I belong) as we had to pass several difficult steep hills & bad Morasses
18th We march'd early this morning proceeded 14 miles to Chaconnut the remains of a learge Indian town which has been likewise abandoned this summer Here we found plenty of cucumbers squashes turnips &c we found about twenty houses which we burnt Our days March has been more severe than yesterday as we had besides hills & common swamps one swamp of about 2 miles so covered with learge pines standing & lying which appeared as tho several hurricanes had been very busey among them since which a tremendious groath of bushes about 20 feet high has sprung up so very thick as to render passing thro' them Impracticable by any troops but such as nothing but death can stop At sunset we ware very agreably allarm'd by the report of a Cannon up the river which we suppos'd to be Genl Clintons Evining Gun.
19th Our troops ware put in motion very early this morning after marching about one mile Genl Poor receiv'd an express from Genl Clinton informing him that the latter expect'd  to be here by 10 o'clock A M in consequence of which we return'd to our old incampment where Genl Clinton Joined us at 10 o'clock with 2000 men Including Officers boatmen &c He has 208 batteaux with provisions Ammunition etc after mutuil congratulations & Complyments the whole proceeded down the river to Owagea & incamp'd This evining the town of Owagea was made a bone fire of to grace our meeting Our general course from Tiogea to Choconut is about N East
20th We have a very heavy rain to day & no tents but we are obliged to ride it out
21st We marched early proceeded within 10 miles of Tiogea
22nd March'd at 6 oclock & at 11 ariv'd in Camp where we were Saluted with 135 Cannon & a tune on Col Proctor's band of Musick.
23d We are prepareing to march with all possible expedition about 5 oclock this afternoon a very shocking accident happened in our Brigade A Soldier very accidentally discharg'd a musket charged with a ball & several buckshot 3 of which unfortunately struck Capt Kimbal of Col Cilley's regt who was standing at some distence in a tent with several other officers in such a manner that he expired within 10 or 15 minutes as universelly lamented as he was esteem'd by all who knew him One of the shot wounded a soldier in the leg who was setting at some distence from the tent Capt Kimbal was in
24th The remains of the unfortunate Capt Kimbal was Inter'd at 11 Oclock A M with the honours of war attended by Genl Poor & almost all the Officers of the Brigade with Col Proctors Band of Musick The Army is very busey in prepareing to march
25th We find great difficulty in getting ready to moove for want of a sufficiant number of horses to Carry our provisions Ammunitions Stores &c however we are to morrow without fail with 27 days flower & live beef Our whole force that will march from here is about 5000 men Officers included with nine peices of Artillery Three of the Anyda Warriers ariv'd in camp this afternoon who going on with us as guides two runners ariv'd from Col. Broadhead at Fort Pitt Informing that Col Broadhead is on his way with about 800 men against the western Indians.
26th Our Army March'd at 12 oclock in the order laid down in the plan of order of March & Battle A garrison of about 300 men is left at this place under the Command of Col Shreeve The army proceeded about 4 miles & incamp'd Mr. Lodge a Gentleman who survay'd and Measur'd the rode from Eastern to this place goes on with in order to take an actual survay of the country who measures the rode as we go on
27th The Army March'd at 8 o'clock Our march were very much Impeeded by the Artillery & Ammunition wagons which we have to clear a rode for thro the thick woods and difficult defiles The army was obliged to halt 7 hours at one defile to day for the artillery and baggage at 10 P M we ariv'd our incamping ground a learge body of clear Intervale where we found about 70 or 80 acres of fine corn our march has not been more than 5 miles to day
28th As we had the corn to destroy before we could march it was 2 oclock P M before we moov'd off the ground By reason of a high mountain that shuts down to the river so as render passing with the artillery impractacable we ware oblig'd to ford the river twice before we got to Chemong with the artillery pack horses and 1 Brigade The water was so high as render'd fording very difficult & dangerous A considerable quantity of flower Ammunition & baggage was lost in the river at 10 in the evening the rear of the army ariv'd at Chemong where we incamp'd Our march to day has not been more than 3 miles. A small scout of ours return'd to day which informs that they discover'd a learge incamp-ment about 6 miles from Chemong A small party of Indians fired on a party of our men to day that ware setting fire to some houses over the river but did no dammage
29th The army march'd at 9 o clock A M proceeded about 5 miles when our light troops discover'd a line of brestworks about 80 rods in their front which after reconnoytering ware found to extend about half a mile in length on very advantageous ground with a learge brook in front the river on their right a high mountain on their left & a learge settlement in their rear called New Town Their works ware very artfully mask'd with green bushes so that the discovering them was as accidental as it was fortunate to us Skirmishing on both sides commene'd soon after we discover'd their works whjch con-  tinued until our Disposition was made which was as followeth viz The Artillery to form in front of their works cover'd by Genl Hands Brigade Genl Poors Brigade and riflemen to turn the Enimies left & fall in their rear supported by Genl Clintons Brigade Gen'l Maxwells Brigade to form a Corps de reserve the left flanking division & light Infantry to pursue the Enimy when they left their works At 3 P M Genl Poor began his rout by Collums from the right of Regts by files we pass'd a very thick swamp so cover'd with bushes for near a mile that the Collumns found great difficulty in keeping their order but by Genl Poors great prudence & good conduct we proceeded in much better order than I expected we possibly could have done After passing this swamp we inclin'd to the left crossed the creek that runs in front of the enimies works On both sides of this creek was a learge number of new houses but no land cleared soon after we pass'd this creek we began to assend the mountain that cover'd the Enimies left Immediately after we began to Assend the Mountain We ware saluted by a brisk fire from a body of Indians who ware posted on this mountain for the purpos of preventing any troops turning the left of their works at the same Instant that they began their fire on us they raised the Indian yell or war whoop The riflemen kept up a scattering fire while we form'd the line of Battle which was done exceeding quick we then advanced rappedly with fix'd bayonets without fireing a shot altho they kept up a steady fire on us until we gain'd the summet of the Mountain which is about half a mile We then gave them a full volley which oblig'd them to take to their heels Col Reids Regt was on the left of the Brigade was more severely attackt than any other part of the Brigade which prevented his advancing as far as the rest After we had scower'd the top of the mountain (in doing which Lt Cass of our regt tommohawked an Indian with the Indians own tommahawk that was slightly wounded) I being next to Col Reid on the left finding he still was very severely ingag'd nearly on the same ground he was first attackt on thought proper to reverse the front of the Regt & moove to his assistence I soon discover'd a body of Indians turning his right which I turn'd about by a full fire from the regt This was a very seasonable releaf to Col Reid who at the very moment I fir'd on those that ware turning his right found himself so surrounded that he was reduc'd to the nessessaty of retreeting or making a desparate push with the bayonet the latter of which he had began to put in executien the moment I gave him releaf The Enimy now all left the field of action with precepitation & in great confusion pursued by our light Infantry about 3 miles They left a number of their packs blankets &c on the ground Half an hour before the action became serious with Genl Poors Brigade the Artillery open'd upon their works which soon made them works too warm for them We found of the Enimy on the field of action 11 Indian warriers dead & one Squaw took one white man & one negro prisoners from whom we learnt that Butler Commanded here that Brandt had all the Indians that could be mustered in the five Nations that there was about 200 whites a few of which were British regular troops It seems their whole force was not far from 1000 These prisoners inform us their loss in killed & wounded was very great the most of which they according to custom carried off Our loss in Genl Poors Brigade kill'd and wounded is
Kill'd Wounded Major 0 1 Major Titcomb Capt 0 1 Capt Clays Lt 0 1 Lt. McCawley died the same night Non-commissiond & privates 3 29
Our loss in Kill'd & wounded in the whole Army except Genl Poors Brigade was
Kill'd 0, Wounded 4.
At sunset the army Incamp'd on the ground lately occupied by the Enimy
30th The Army remain'd on the ground to day destroy'd a vast quantity of corn & about 40 houses The Army by a request of Genl Sullivans agree'd to live on half a pound of beef & half a pound of flower pr day for the future as long as it may be found nessessary our provisions being very short This night our sick and wounded together with the Ammunition waggons & 4 of our heaviest peaces of Artillery are sent back to  Tiogea by water which will enable the Army to proceed with much greater ease & rappidity Our course from Chemong to here is about N West
31st We march'd at 10 o'clock The right Column march'd on the hills some distence from the river the left collumn & Artillery march'd by the river The land we march'd over fine Found and Destroy'd several fields of corn & houses Proceeded 4-1/2 miles to where the Alliganer & Kaiyugea branches of the river unite On the point between these two streems was a very pritty town call'd Kannawaloholla which from appearance was deserted this morning Some boats ware seen by our advanced parties going up the Allaganer branch. A number of feather beds ware emtied in the houses our soldiers found several learge chests buried which ware fill'd with a great variety qf household furniture & many other articles After halting here an hour we proceeded between the two rivers on a fine plain about 5 miles & incamp'd. A detachment was sent up the Allegana branch in pursute of the Enimy
SEPTEMBER 1st The detachment that was sent up the river in pursute of the Enimy return'd this morning. They could not overtake the Enimy but they found & destroy'd several learge fields of corn
The Army march'd at 10 oclock proceeded about 3 miles on a plain then came to what is call'd bair Swamp which extends to French Katareens 9 miles The growth is pine Spruce & hemlock exceeding thick A small river run thro it which we had to cross about 20 times On both sides of this Swamp is a ridg of tremendous hills, which the collums ware oblig'd to march on having a rode to open for the artillery proceeded very slowly At dark when we had got within about 3 miles of Katareens Town we found ourselves in a most horrid thick Mirey Swamp which render'd our proceeding so difficult that it was 10 oclock in the Evining before we ariv'd at the town where we found fires burning & every other appeerence of the Enimies having left the town this afternoon This Town consists of above 30 houses There is a number fruit trees in this town The streem that we cross'd so often to day runs thro this Town & into the Seneca or Kannadasegea Lake the south end of which is but 3 miles from this Town
2nd The Army lay still to day to recrute and to destroy the Town corn &c A very old Squaw was found in the bushes who was not able to go off with the rest who informs us that Butler with the Tories went from this place with all the boats the day before yesterday the Indians warriers mooved off their families & Effects yesterday morning & then return'd here and stay'd till Sunset She says the Squaws & young Indians ware very loth to quit the town but ware for giving themselves up but the warriors would not agree to it Several horses & cattle ware found at & about this place A party of light troops ware sent this morning to indeavor to overtake some of the Indians who left this place last evining but return'd without being able to afect it object
3d The Army march'd at 8 oclock after proceeding about 3 miles over rough ground came oposite to the end of the Lake & then found good marching the land very fine Proceeded 9 miles & incamp'd at 4 oclock P M near the east side of the lake This Lake is 40 miles in length & from 2 to 5 in wedth & runs nearly North & South.
4. The army march'd at 10 oclock proceeded 4 miles to a small village where we found several fine fields of corn after destroying the village and corn march'd on 8 miles further and incamp'd The land we passed over this day is very fine
5th the Army march'd at 10 oclock and proceeded 5 miles to an old Indian town call'd Candaia or Apple Town where there is a very old orchard of 60 trees & many other fruit trees The town consists of 15 or 20 houses very beautifully situated near the Lake In the Town are 3 Sepulchers which are very Indian fine where I suppose some of their chiefs are deposited At this town we found a man by the name of Luke Sweatland who was taken by the Savages at Wyoming last summer and was adopted into an Indian family in this town where he has liv'd or rether stay'd about 12 months He appeer'd quite overjoy'd at meeting some of his acquaintence from Wyoming who are in our army He said the savages were very much straiten'd for food from April until corn was fit to roast that his being kept so starved prevented him from attempting to desert altho he had frequent opportunities by being sent 20 miles to the salt springs to make salt which springs he  says affords salt for all the Savages in this part of the country He says the Indians ware much alarm'd and dejected at being beat at New Town They told him they had a great many wounded which they sent off by water We destroy'd learge quantities of corn here. An express ariv'd thas afternoon from Tyogea by which I receiv'd a letter that inform'd me that Abner Dearborn a nephew of mine about 16 years old, who was wounded in the Battle of New town died of his wounds the 2d inst
6th The horses & cattle ware so scattered this morning that the army could not git redy to march until 3 P M proceeded 3 miles & incamp'd Oposite to where we incamped on the other side of the Lake we discovered a settlement & where we could see some Indians driving horses
7th Took up our line of march at 7 oclock proceeded 8 miles and came to the end of the Lake where we expected the Enimy would give us another battle as they might have a very great advantage over us as we forded the outlet of the Lake. When we ariv'd in sight of the ford we halted & several scouts were sent out to reconnoyter the adjacent woods when we found the coast was clear the army pass'd the ford proceeded three miles by the end of the Lake & found a small settlement which we destroy'd & then proceeded 2 miles from the Lake a learge town call'd Kannadasegea which is consider'd as the Cappital of the Senecas and is call'd the Seneca Castle It consists of about 40 houses very erregularly situated in the senter of which is the ruins of a Stockade fort & block house Here is a conciderable number of apple & other fruit trees & a few acres of land clear cover'd with English grass Their cornfields which are very large are at some considerable distence from the Town we found In this town a white child about 3 years old which we suppose was a captive In the house was left a number of Skins some corn & many of their curiosities
8th The Army lay still to day The riflemen ware sent to destroy a town about 8 miles from hence on the west side of the lake Call'd Gaghsonghgwa We found a number of stacks of hay not far from this town which we set fire to A Scout of ours burnt a town to day about 10 miles N East from hence on the rode to the Kayugea Settlement call'd Skaigees or long falls
9th By reason of a rain last night the Army could not march till 12 o'clock All our sick & Invaleeds ware sent back this morning to Tiaogea under an escort of 50 men We proceeded about 3 miles thro old fields cover'd with grass then enter'd a thick swamp, calld the 10 mile swamp we proceeded 4 miles in this swamp with great difficulty crossed a considerable streem of water & Incamp'd
10th the Army March'd at 8 o'clock Proceeded thro the swamy & passed a learge body of clear land covered with grass after leaving the clear land march'd one mile & Came to a small lake called Konnoadaiguah we forded the outlet of this lake proceeded about half a mile & came to a very prety town call'd Kannandaguah consisting of about 30 houses much better built then any I have seen before Near the town we discover'd very large fields of corn Near which the Army incamp'd several parties were orderd out this afternoon to destroy the corn &c
11th The Army Moov'd at 6 o clock march'd 14 miles to an Indian town called Anyayea situate on a body of clear intervale near a small lake of the same name. This town consists of 10 or 11 houses. Near it was several large cornfields The land we march'd over to day is very good & a great part of it very thinly wooded & cover'd with grass It appeers as if it has been cultivated heretofore
12th The weather being foul the army did not march till 12 o'clock A small post is establish'd here where we leave our provisions & Ammunition except what will be nesessary to carry us to Chenesee (25 miles) & back again One peice of artillery is left at this post the Army march'd 11 miles this afternoon over a body of excellent land.
13 March'd at 7 oclock Proceeded 1-1/2, miles to a town call'd Kanegsas or Quicksea. consisting of 18 houses situate on an excellent Intervale near a small lake we found a learge quantity of corn, beans Squashes potatoes water Mellons cucumbers &c &c in & about this town The army halted here 4 hours to destroy the Town & corn & to build a bridge over a creek At this town liv'd a very noted warrier called the Great Tree who  has made great pretensions of friendship to us & has been to Phyladelphia & to Genl Washingtons head Quarters since the war commenced & has received a number of Presents from Genl Washington & from Congress yet we suppose he is with Butler against us
A party of Riflemen & some others 26 in the whole under the command of Lt Boyd of the Rifle corps was sent last night to a town 7 miles from here to make what discoveries he could & return at day brake Four of his men went into the town found it abandoned but found 3 or 4 scattering Indians one of which they kill'd and Skelp'd & then returnd to Lt Boyd after sunrise who lay at some distence from the town He then sent 4 men to report to Genl Sullivan what he had discover'd and moov'd on slowly with the remainder toward camp. After he had proceeded about halfway to camp he halted some time expecting the Army along he after halting some time sent two more men to Camp who discover'd some Scattering Indians & returned to Lt Boyd again he then march'd on his party towards camp & discover'd some Scattering Indians one of which one of his men kill'd He soon found himself nearly surrounded & attackt by two or three hundred savages and tories he after fighting them some time attempt to retreet but found it impracticable 6 or 7 of his men did make their escape the remainder finding themselves completely surrounded ware determin'd to sell themselves as deer as possible & bravely fought until every man was killed but two whch ware Taken one of which was Lt Boyd Some of the men that made their escape came to camp & inform'd the Genl of the matter upon which Genl Hand with the light troops was order'd to march to the place of action but too late they left all their packs hats baggage &c where the action began which Genl Hand found.
After we had finish'd the bridge the army march'd on proceeded 7 miles to the before mentioned Town & incamp'd This town consists of 22 houses situate on a small river which falls into the Chenesse river about 2 miles below here and is call'd Gaghchegwalahale
14th. The Genl expected to have found the great Chennesee town within 1-1/2 miles of here on this side the river but upon reconoytering found that the town is 6 miles from here & on the other side of the river The army was imploy'd until 11 o clock in destroying corn which was found in great plenty at 12 Marched after fording the small river that the town stood on and passing thro a small grove we enter'd on what is called the Great Chenesee flats which is a vast body of clear Intervale extending 12 or 14 miles up & down the river & several miles back from the river cover'd with grass from 5 to 8 feet high & so thick that a man can git thro it but very slowly. Our army appeered there to very great advantage mooving in the exact order of March laid down in the plan but very often we that ware on horse back could see nothing but the mens guns above the grass After marching about 2 miles on this flat we came to the Chenesee River which we forded passed over a body of flats on the other side & assended on to oak land proceeded 3 miles & ariv'd at the town which we found deserted Here we found the bodies of Lt. Boyd & one other man Mangled in a most horred manner From appeerances it seems they ware tyed to two trees near which they lay & first severely whipp'd them their tongues were cut out their finger nails plucked off their eyes plucked out then speer'd & cut in many places & after they had vented their hellish spite & rage cut off their heads and left them. This was a most horrid specticle to behold & from which we are taught the necessity of fighting those more than devels to the last moment rather then fall into their hands alive
This is much the leargest Town we have met with it consists of more than 100 houses is situate on an excellent piece of land in a learge bow of the river. It appears the savages left this place in a great hurry & confusion as they left learge quantities of corn husk'd & some in heeps not husk'd & many other signs of confusion
15th At six o'clock the whole Army ware turn'd out to destroy the corn in & about this town which we found in great abundance we ware from 6 o clock to 2 P M in destroying the corn & houses It is generally thought we have destroy'd 15,000 bushels of corn at this place The meathod we took to destroy it was to make large fires with parts of houses & other wood & then piling the corn on to the fire ading wood as we piled on the corn which Effectually destroyd the whole of it a woman with her child came to us to day who was taken at Wyoming when that place was cut off Her husband and one  child ware Kill'd & Skelp'd in her sight when she was taken She inform'd us that Butler & Brant with the tories & Indians left this place in a great hurry the 13 inst & are gone to Niagara which is 80 miles from hence where they expect we are going She says the Indians are very uneasey with Butler and their other leaders & are in great distress
We have now got to the end of our route & are turning our face homeward At 3 o clock we fac'd to the right about & march'd in high spirits recross'd the Chenesee river & incamp'd on the Chenesee flats This place lays about west from teogea
16th A number of fields of corn were discover'd this morning at different places which employ'd the army until 10 o clock in destroying At 1 o clock P. M we recross'd the streem at Gaghchegwalahale & at 4 ariv'd at Kanigsas or Chockset & incamp'd 14 of Lt Boyd's party ware found this afternoon near together skelp'd Honyose an Onyda Indian of considerable note that was with Lt Boyds party was among the dead
17th The army march'd at sunrise & at 12 o clock ariv'd at Anyaye where we left our stores & found all safe
18th the Army March'd at 8 o clock proceeded to Kaunandaguah & incamp'd Four Onyda Indians one of which is a Sachem met us to day who say that 100 of the Onydas & Tuskaroras set out with them to join us but meeting an Indian that left us sick at Kannadasagea when we ware advancing who told them we march'd on so rappedly that they could not overtake us so as to be of any service they all returned but these four
19th The Army march'd to Kannadasegea An Express ariv'd from Genl Washington to day by which we are assured that Spain has declared War against England & that the Grand Fleets of France and Spain have form'd a Junction at Sea
At several towns that our army has destroy'd we found dogs hung up on poles about 12 or 15 feet high which we are told is done by way of sacrafice When they are unfortunat in war they sacrafice two dogs in the manner above mentioned to appease their Imaginery god One of these dogs skins they suppose is converted into a Jacket & the other into a tobacko pouch for their god The woman who came to us at Chenesee says the Savages hung up dogs immediately after the Battle of New Town
20th 500 men are detach'd under the command of Col Butler who is to march round Kaiyugea lake & destroy the Kaiyugea settlements at the East side of the Lake 100 men under the Command of Col Ganseworth are order'd to go and destroy the Mohawk castle on the Mohawk river & to proceed from thence to Albany
The Army march'd this afternoon cross'd the outlet of the Seneca Lake & incamp'd
21st I was order'd with 200 men to proceed to the west side of the Kaiyugea Lake from thence by the side of the lake to the south end to burn and destroy what Settlements corn &c I might find At 8 o clock I march'd proceeded an East course about 8 miles and found 2 or 3 wigwams in the wood* with some small paches of corn Squashes water mallons and cucumbers and about 14 or 15 fine houses which we could not take after Destroying this little village proceeded 4 miles to the lake where I found a very pretty town of 10 houses† and a conciderable quantity of corn all which we burnt We discover'd another small Town about a mile above this which we likewise destroyed. This place is call'd Skannayutenate‡ After destroying this Town I march'd on one mile and came to a new town § consisting of nine houses which we destroy'd and proceeded 1 mile
Note.—The notes with initials J. S. C., were made by Gen. John S. Clark, 1879.
* This hamlet appears to have been located on the farm of Thomas Shankwiler near the south-east corner of lot 15 in the town of Fayette, Seneca Co., probably on Sucker brook.—J. S. C.
+ A town of ten houses, located on the west bank of Cayuga lake at the north-east corner of the town of Fayette, in Seneca County, about a mile and a half from present Canoga village. Destroyed Sept. 21, 1779.—J. S. C.
‡ Skannayutenate, a small village located about forty rods from the shore of the lake, on the south bank of Canoga creek, about half a mile north-east of the present Canoga village. On the north bank of the creek, between the site of the old Indian town and the north and south road passing through Canoga, is said to be the birth-place of the renowned Seneca orator, Sagoyewatba or Red Jacket. Destroyed Sept. 21,1779.—J. S. C.
§ Newtown.—An Indian village of nine houses, located on the west bank of Cayuga lake, on the Disinger farm, a mile south of present Canoga village, and directly opposite the village of Union Springs on the east side of the lake. Destroyed Sept. 21, 1779.—J. S C.
 & found one learge house which we set fire to and march'd on two miles further & incamp'd The land we March'd over this day is exceeding fine.
22nd I march'd half an hour before sunrise proceeded about 5 miles and came to the ruins of a Town that a party of our men burnt when the army was advancing who mis'd their way and happen'd to fall in at this Town about half a mile from the town I found a large field of corn and 3 houses We gathered the corn & burnt it in the houses This Town is called Swahyawanah* we march'd from this place about 5 miles & found a wigwam with 3 Squaws and one young Indian who was a cripple, I took 2 of the Squaws who ware about 40 or 50 years old and march'd on about 3 miles and found one hut and a field of corn which I burnt & proceeded about 4 miles & incamp'd
23d March'd at Sunrise proceeded without any path or track or any parson who was ever in this part of the country before to guide us and the land so horred rough and brushey that it was hardly possible for us to advance however with great difficulty & fatigue we proceeded about 8 or 9 miles to the end of a long cape† which I expected was the end of the lake but found was not From here We marched off 2 or 3 miles from the Lake and then proceeded by a point of compass about 8 miles & come to the end of the lake and incamp'd This lake is about 40 miles in length & from 2 to 5 miles in wedth and runs nearly N and S parralel with the Seneca Lake & they are from 8 to 10 miles apart.
24th March'd at Sunrise proceeded about 3 miles on the high land and came to an old path which led us to two huts and some corn fields which ware about one mile from where we first found the old path after burning these two houses & corn I sent several small parties different ways to loock for a large Town that I had been inform'd was not many miles from the end of the lake The parties found 10 or 12 scattering houses and a number of learge cornfields on and near a streem that falls into the Lake After burning & destroying several houses & cornfields a small party that I had sent out discover'd the Town about 3 miles from the lake on the above mentioned Streem this town & its suburbs consists of about 25 houses & is called Coreorgonel‡ & is the cappital of a Small nation or tribe called the ____. My party was imploy'd from 9 oclock A M till sunset I expected to have met Col Butler with his party at this town
* SWAHYAWANA, was on the farm of Edward K. Dean, in the north-east corner of the town of Romulus, Seneca county, on the north bank of Sinclair Hollow creek, near the shore of the lake, and almost exactly opposite the important town of Chonodote, on the east side, the site of present Aurora. Was burned September 6. by a party that wandered from the track of the main army when they passed up on the east side of the lake.—J. S. C.
† TAGHANIC POINT, formerly known as Goodwin's Point. The bank of the lake both north and south of this, is very much cut up with ravines, and the lake shore is too rocky and precipitous for an Indian path. For several miles the trail was back two miles from the lake, along the heads of the ravines, probably passing through Hayt's corners and Ovid Centre. From this high ground the lake appears to end at Taghanic Point.—J. S. C.
‡ COREORGONEL, called De-ho-riss-kanadia by George Grant, was located on the west side of Cayuga inlet, about three miles from the end of the lake and two miles south of Ithaca. The main village was on a high ground south of the school-house on the farm of James Fleming, nearly opposite Buttermilk Falls. Several skeletons have been exhumed here within a few years, and the usual variety of relics found, such as hatchets, wampum, beads, &c. A solitary apple tree still remains, a fit memento to represent the race by which it was planted. When first known to the whites there were five boles starting from the ground, but these are now reduced to two, and are probably shoots from the original tree cut down or girdled by Dearborn. The town was destroyed September 24,1779. At this time it contained twenty-five houses, besides ten or twelve scattered between the main village and the lake. Colonel Butler after passing up on the east side of Cayuga Lake halted here on the 25th, and found Rev. Dr. Kirkland's horse in the vicinity of the smoking ruins.
A peculiar interest is attached to this locality and village, from the fact that here the representatives of a once powerful people, sought to preserve for a brief period, the last remaining spark of a council fire that from time immemorial had burned brilliantly in the presence of assembled nations, numbering their warriors by thousands They were called by the Iroquois TODERICHROONES, one of the tribes known to the English as Catawbas, sometimes called Saponies. They formerly resided between the Potomac and Roanoke rivers, east of the Alleghanies. A most inveterate hostile feeling existed between them and the Iroquois, which reached back to near the middle of the seventeenth century. A peace was arranged as early as 1685, though negotiations with the government of Virginia, and again what was expected to be a "lasting peace" and firm [continued as footnote on following page] alliance, was concluded in 1714, but in the night after the close of the council, the Iroquois deputies, while reposing in fancied security were treacherously murdered while asleep. This aroused the Iroquois to vengeance, and the war was renewed with unexampled ferocity, with a determination to totally extirpate the base, faithless and treacherous people. In 1717 through the intercession of Governor Hunter, at the request of Governor Spottswood of Virginia, a truce was arranged, and in 1722 delegates from the Five Nations met Governor Spottswood at Albany to conclude what was to be an "everlasting peace," in which the Iroquois bound themselves not to cross tbe Potomac or go over the Alleghanies, without a passport from the Governor of New York, Governor Spottswood engaging that the tribes in his locality should not pass to the north or west of same lines. The tribes mentioned by the Governor were the "NOTTOWAYS, MEHERINS, NANSEMONDS, PAMUNKEYS, CHICOHOMINYI, and the CHRISTANNA INDIANS whom you call TODERICHROONES," and others—in all, ten nations. This council was conducted with great formality, and valuable presents were presented, among which were a "fine coronet" and a "gold horse shoe" with an inscription. In 1738 they were again at war, and in 1748 at peace. In 1751 Governor Clinton says "the Governor of South Carolina sent six chiefs of the Catawbas to make peace with tbe Five Nations," and says that "they had been at war as long as any one in this country can remember." In 1753 Sir William Johnson mentions the fact that the Cayugas "are about to strengthen their castle by taking in the TODARIGHROONES." In the same year they are mentioned as attending a conference at Mt. Johnson, and are described as "one of the nine confederate nations." The town is indicated at the head of Cayuga lake on the Guy Johnson map of 1771, in the same position where it was found by Colonel Dearborn in 1779, under the name of TODEVIGHRONO, the name of the people. In 1750 Zeisberger, the Moravian missionary, passed through this valley while on his way to visit the Cayugas, but makes no mention of an Indian village in the vicinity. Undoubtedly they settled there in the summer of 1753. Their cleared fields were found on the present site of Ithaca on the first settlement of the country by the whites and were the first lands occupied in the county. The town is indicated but not named on the map of Mr. Lodge, the surveyor who accompanied Colonel Butler's detachment. To stand on the identical spot from which this people sunk into oblivion, appeared like standing on the grave of a nation. Their history, the beginning of which extends far back into the unknown and unattainable, ends where that of civilization begins, and adds another name to the long list of extinguished nationalities that preceded us in sovereignty. Here their council fire, fauned by the last expiring breath of a once brave and numerous people, was extinguished forever.—J. S. C.
 25th I march'd at sunrise for Katareens Town where I was order'd to join the main Army I proceeded a due west point over a terible rough mountainous country about 18 miles and at 4 o clock ariv'd at Katareens but the army was gone forward I proceeded 6 miles in what is called the bair Swamp and incamp'd
26th March'd at Sunrise at 12 o clock joined the army at Kannawalohala which is 4 miles from where we fought the Enimy the 29 of August The army had a day of Rejoycing here yesterday in Consequence of the News from Spain.
27th Some detachments ware sent up the Allegana river to destroy what houses and corn fields they might find
28th The same parties that Went yesterday were sent again to day further up the river to destroy a tory Settlement that a small party discovered yesterday and a learge detachment was sent off to compleet the destruction of the corn &c at and about Newtown At 12 o clock Col Butler with his party ariv'd in Camp on their route round the Lake they burnt & destroy'd several towns and a vast Quantity of corn.
29th The Army march'd to Chemong
30th ariv'd at Tiogea where we were Saluted with 13 Cannon which we answer'd with the same number Col Shreeve who commanded the Garrison made an entertainment for the Genl & Field Officers this afternoon was spent in festevity and mirth Joy appear'd in every countinence We now have finish'd our campaign & gloriously too
OCTOBER 1st We are begining to prepare to march for Wyoming
2nd Genl Sullivan made an entertainment for all the Genl & Field officers to day this evening we had an Indian war dance at Head Quarters The Onyda Sachem was Master of cerimonies
3d The army is prepareing to march for Wyoming
4th The Army march'd 15 miles down the River
5th The whole Army Imbark'd on board boats except what was nesessary to drive the pack horses & cattle & the
7th Ariv'd at Wyoming in high spirits During the whole of this Severe Campaign our loss in kill'd died of wounds & Sickness did not exceed 60 men
 8th Genl Sullivan receiv'd an express this evining from Genl Washington informing him that Count De Staing is on the coast near New York with a fleet & Army in consequence of which Genl Sullivans army is order'd to march the 10th inst for Head Quarters.
10th The Army March'd for Easton & the 15th ariv'd there this army has marchd from Tiogea to Easton (150 miles thro a mountainous rough Wilderness) in 8 days with their artillery and baggage an extreordinery march indeed
16th 17th & 18th Remain at Easton
we are inform'd that Count Destang has taken several ships of war together with all the transports & troops the Enimy had at & near Georgia he is expected dayly at New York
25th our army is to march the 27 Inst towards Head Quarters
an express ariv'd this day from Head Quarters which informs that the Enimy had evacuated their posts at Kings ferry & have retired to N. York.
The following account of the proceedings and exercises, of the Centennial Celebration at Aurora, Cayuga County, September 24, 1879, from the Auburn Daily Advertiser, has been kindly furnished by Hon. William H. Bogart, of Aurora:
[From the Auburn Daily Advertiser.]
AURORA'S CELEBRATION OF THE CENTENNIAL OF COLONEL
BUTLER'S DESTRUCTION OF THE ANCIENT INDIAN VILLAGE.
A morning unpropitious, because of cold winds and heavy rain, did not abate the patriotic ardor of the good people of Aurora, for, amid the peltings of the pitiless storm, the broad banners of our free land were unfolded, and the triumphal arches erected, that betokened, so unmistakably, the commemoration of some great event.
Passing along the main street, we noticed, at almost every step, some strikingly appropriate and pleasing motto, connected with, or memorial of, the 24th day of September, 1779.
Without attempting a description of all, and possibly, of many of the most worthy, we speak of the display of flags, emblems, mottoes, and the well displayed resolution of Congress, relative to this Indian War, on and about the hotel, as being peculiarly attractive, and interesting. The residence of the late E. W. Arms, a portion of which is still the original log-cabin of the early days, displayed as its motto, "The wigwam fell, and the log cabin arose." An evergreen arch spanned the street, between the Presbyterian church and the academy, bearing the mottoes, "Gwah U Gwah, Welcome Civilization." "Scalps in 1779, Brains in 1879." The appropriate motto on the depot building was, "From the trail to the track." At the southern line of lot 34, being the military lot, occupied by the village of Aurora, was an arch, with the inscription, "The end of  savage dominion," on one end, and "We live on soldiers' land," on the other end, this being the first celebration ever held, on land given by the government to soldiers. The residence of Henry A. Morgan was profusely decorated, and bore the motto, "We live on the soldiers' land." Also, the home of C. B. Morgan, especially for the evening illumination, and of Col. E. B. Morgan, on whose iron deer was the inscription, "The first inhabitant."
At 10 o'clock, one hundred years ago Wednesday, a detachment of soldiers, under Col. William Butler, left Chonodote, (Aurora), after they had burned fourteen dwellings, occupied by the hostile Indians; so that day, at the hour of 10, the bell in the tower of the Presbyterian church, was tolled fourteen times, by Mr. Alfred Tait, the sexton.
At 1 o'clock, the bright, sunshine coming out, as if to crown with gladness, the anniversary of the bloodless victory, C. B. Morgan, Esq., as Marshal of the day, formed the procession, in front of the hotel, and led by the Union Springs cornet band, marched to the locality known as the "Old Foundation." This place is at the northern extremity of the village, on the northern bank of a ravine, and on the bank of the lake, about fifteen rods from the shore. Here, on a plot of ground, about two rods by three, never plowed, but being as left by its first settlers, save the changes made, naturally, by the lapse of time, was erected, nearly one hundred years ago, by Roswell Franklin, the first dwelling of a white man, in this region.
The depression made by excavating for the cellar, is now distinctly marked, also, the place where was the foundation of the chimney, outside the dwelling. A little distance to the south, on the same plot, and near the south-west corner, is the little grave of a child, being the first white person who died in this county.
* * * *** * *
Arriving at the "Old Foundation," Col. E. B. Morgan, as President of the day, announced the order of exercises, which was first, a dirge, "Dreams of my Childhood," by the band, and then a few appropriate introductory remarks, by Col. Morgan, alluding to the settlement of Mr. Franklin, whom he well remembered, and who, sixty-five years ago, he said, took me by the hand, though but a boy, and told me something of the scenes and times, connected with his coming to this place, and also, of those which were marked periods, in his settlement and life in  this locality. I remember well, his sending me for an ax, with which he cut off a portion of the wood, which formed the threshold of his house, that stood on this spot, and which was the first house erected by a white man in Western New York, (Military Tract) I hold in my hand, and now present for your inspection, the identical piece of wood, which I have very carefully preserved. Col. Morgan then took from a wrapping of newspaper, a piece of wood about two inches in diameter, and fourteen inches in length, which, together with a smaller piece, cut at the same time, from a stump, which Mr. Franklin used as a mortar, in which to pound corn he exhibited to the applauding people.
President Morgan then announced the presence of the Rev. W. S. Franklin, a grandson of Roswell Franklin, who lost so many relatives in the massacre at Wyoming, and whose father was the Roswell Franklin, who built on the "Old Foundation" where we now stand.
The Rev. Mr. Franklin remarked, that he was only a figure-head in history, and would not detain the people, in the bleak wind, to hear anything he might, under other circumstances, be pleased to say.
He would remark, however, that he was well aware that the events we had met, to-day, to commemorate, as well as other events so intimately connected with the history of our early settlements, should not be passed over lightly, still, inasmuch as Rev. Dr. Hawley and the ITon. W. H. Bogart were specially prepared, to speak on this occasion, of so much local and historical interest, and under the shelter of the public hall, he would detain them no longer.
"Sweet Home," was then played by the band, after which President Morgan announced that, soon there would be a suitable monument erected on this spot, which announcement was greeted, by the citizens of Aurora in particular, with most earnest applause.
ACADEMY HALL EXERCISES.
The procession now re-formed, and marched to Wells College, to be joined by the teachers and students, and thence to Academy Hall, for the remaining exercises. As the procession approached the College, five Indian Chiefs appeared, in the rear of the buildings, shaking a white handkerchief, as a token of peace, which was responded to, with a similar token, by Marshal C. B. Morgan, when they came out from their hiding place, and joined in the march of the procession, to the hall, where they were the observed of all observers.
On the wall, in rear of the platform, were United States, French, Spanish and Dutch flags, beautifully intermingled, representing the several nationalities that assisted us in the war. In the center of this grouping  of flags, was a large shield, bearing the dates, "1779," and "1879," crossed over its surface being the sword of General Gates, and the bow an Indian. Above, and on either side of this shield, were streamers bearing, one the words "Chonodote," the other "Aurora." On the eastern wall was, on a white cloth, a perfect representation, at this time, of the monument of Colonel Wm, Butler, as it now stands at Elmira,* with fragmentary portions of the inscriptions thereon, being all that are now visible. On the western wall was the motto, "Retribution, not Vengeance." All seats and all available standing room being occupied and quiet observed, the Rev. Dr. Aikman, pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Aurora, opened the exercises with a prayer replete with the promptings of a patriotic heart in behalf of a people, country and government that he loved, not forgetting in his noble Christian purpose, and his pleadings for God's continued mercy and favor, the remaining "remnant, weak and small" of those Indian tribes from whom our fathers suffered so much.
W. H. Bogart, Esq., as Vice-President then read several letters from friends unavoidably absent, among which we pressnt the following from Ex-Governor Horatio Seymour:
UTICA, Sept. 20, 1879.
TO THE CITIZENS OF AURORA AND CAYUGA LAKE:—
I wish, for many reasons, I could be at Aurora on the 24th inst., but I do not feel able to leave home at this time. It has been a matter of great regret to me, that I could not take part in the celebrations along the line of General Sullivan's march, as one of my grandfathers was an officer in a New Jersey Regiment, which was engaged in the campaign against the Iroquois.† I should like to have followed his trail, through the forests which then covered our State, to have stood at prominent points, where he must have overlooked lakes and rivers, or the broad acres of nature. The battle-fields carry our minds back to the past, in a way so fresh and clear, that one feels as if he had been an actor in their stirring events. These celebrations not only excite an interest in the past, but they call our attention to the great changes, which have been made, in the course of a century, and make us see, more clearly, what we now enjoy, and also give some foresight into the future. It is no small gain to the people of New York, to be taught that they have a history surpassing that of all other sections of our country, in its influence upon the civilization, governments, and customs of our people. Until they are made familiar with the colonial and revolutionary events, they can not gain a clear conception of the causes, which have shaped and directed the destinies of this continent.
So far, all the histories of our Union, are provincial in their aspects, and lack the unity which gives a clear conception of causes and consequences, of great control and lasting influences. What has taken place in this State, is not set forth in its full proportions, and hence, we feel that some things are wanting, to make it complete and clear.
I wish to make a suggestion about your celebration, which I have made to others, who have taken parts in the memorial services, along the line of the march of General Sullivan's army.
*Rev. Mr. Craft gives the place of burial of Col. Wm. Butler, as Pittsburgh, Pa., see Page 373.
†See Page 42.
 I think the State will publish the proceedings and addresses on those occasions, as it did those of the celebrations of 1877. If it does, the book will go into all of our public libraries. In time, all that is said and done at these gatherings, will be read with great interest, not only on account of the historical facts set forth, but also, for the reason that they will show those who come, a hundred years from now, how such affairs were conducted.
Little incidents may be of great value to them, as they may throw light on our manners, customs, etc. I hope you will collect and keep with care, every account which is published, and what is said and done, at your place, on the 24th inst. This will enable you to aid the Secretary of State, when he makes up his book, in pursuance of the directions of the Legislature.
I am truly yours, etc.,
To William II. Bogart, Esq.
After reading a letter from Hon. Lucius Robinson, Governor of New York, regretting his inability to be present, also a letter from Rev. T. A. Hendricks of Union Springs, the following was read from Mayor Osborne of Auburn:
AUBURN, N. Y., Sept. 22d, 1879.
My Dear Sir:—I have your letter of the 19th inst., inviting me to the centennial commemoration of historical incidents, connected with Gen. Sullivan's march during the Revolution, to be held in Aurora, on the 24th inst
Every incident connected with our Revolutionary struggle, is becoming more and more dear as time goes by, and this generation does well in handing down to future generations, and preserving for their example, the heroic deeds of our fathers, to the end that they may be taught, that while men pass away, and their places are filled by others, the memory of good and heroic deeds is not forgotten.
Until this morning, I hoped to accept your kind invitation, but I find I shall, in all probability, be called away on important business matters.
D. M. OSBORNE.
WM. H. Bogart, ESQ., AURORA, N. Y.:
Mr. Bogart then introduced the Rev. David Craft, of Wyalusing, Pa., as the real historian of these remarkable events in our early history.
Mr. Craft's historical addresses, at the four centennial celebrations have been consolidated and thoroughly revised by him, and will appear elsewhere in this volume.
Colonel Morgan then introduced the Rev. Charles Hawley, D. D., of Auburn, N. Y., President of the Cayuga County Historical Society, who delivered the following address:
ADDRESS BY REV. DR. CHARLES HAWLEY.
The event of a hundred years ago, which we have come together to celebrate, has all the connections of history to give it the dignity we now accord it, after this lapse of a century. Trivial as it might otherwise appear, it proved to be the last of a series of events, that preceded the downfall of a proud and powerful nation, which had long held this ground, whose castle overlooked the waters, and guarded the shores of this now classic lake, and whose canton was the fairest of the famous Iroquois confederacy. In-  deed, the burning of the Cayuga town, Chonodote, on the 24th of September, 1779, with the destruction of its cornfields, gardens and orchards, covering almost the very site of this village of Aurora, with its comfort and culture, its seat of learning and generosity of wealth, its tasteful grounds and attractive homes, was among the finishing strokes in that succession of heavy blows, under which the great confederacy itself, once holding the gateways of the continent, from the Hudson to the Mississippi, was shattered to pieces. It completed the Sullivan Campaign against the Senecas and Cayugas, being the last of the forty towns destroyed, in that relentless and fiery march, that left naught but desolation in its track, and thus concluded a long and tragic period in American history.
Already, for more than a century, France and England had been in conflict over this same territory, striving with the arts of diplomacy, the force of arms, and even the persuasions of religion, to secure on the one side or the other, the alliance of the Iroquois nations, and thus the mastery of the new world. It was not a struggle of mere colonial ambition, between the settlements of New France on the St. Lawrence and the English colony of New York, which had already wrested from the possession of the Dutch, the tide waters of the Hudson; least of all was it, as the first glance over the history might lead us to suppose, a question solely of commerce with the native tribes, a Strife for the beaver trade and like products of the chase, they were so ready to exchange for brandy and fire-arms, largely as these articles figured in the early competitions and resources of the colonies.
The real struggle was one of ideas, inherent in the rival civilizations, which had already broken the peace of Europe, and was now seeking an ampler theatre on this new continent. It was the long drawn conflict between liberty and power, with changes of place and combatants, renewed en the hunting grounds and battlefields of the Iroquois, till at length, it laid their homes in ashes, despoiled them of their cherished domain, and trampled out the last vestige of their ancient glory.
It is well, therefore, that such consideration has been given by way of research and demonstration, to the Sullivan Expedition, the centennial observances of which have done so much to illustrate the history, and, we trust, to quicken the patriotism of the country.
It is no longer a military raid, finding an apology for its cruelties, only in the direst necessities of the war. It is rather seen now, in the larger cycle of events, to mark a most distinct epoch of our Revolutionary conflict, by associating it, as does no other of its military achievements, with that older struggle, which gave birth to the Revolution itself, and made it worth all of the sacrifice and valor it cost to achieve it, and has cost to maintain its principles, to this hour.
If we would appreciate the motives which led to the expedition, with the results immediately aimed at in its plan, we must go back in our thought, to the Winter of 1778-9, after three years of well-nigh fruitless war.
In every direction, the outlook was gloomy and depressing. The first enthusiasm kindled by the Declaration of Independence, was fast dying out, and the prospects for fresh military operations, dreary and discouraging. Dissensions, and party feuds had broken out in Congress, where so much depended on harmony of action. Moreover, that body had deteriorated in personal character and statesmanship, since the Declaration in 1776, had rallied the united Colonies to arms. Jefferson himself, had withdrawn from the national councils, and was serving his State as Governor. Benjamin Harrison, also a conspicuous figure in that Congress, had retired to the position of Speaker, of the Virginia House of Delegates. Other illustrious Virginians, as George Mason, Chancellor Wythe, Edward Pendleton, with representatives from other states, scarcely less distinguished in the memorable Congress of 1776, were occupied with the immediate concerns, of their several localities, or with their private affairs. It was a sorry picture of the times, and even of men as it shaped itself in the solicitudes of Washington, and as he has actually drawn it, in the freedom of private correspondence. We find him mourning with a patriot's grief, over the degeneracy which had befallen the whole country, "the idleness, dissipation, extravagance with speculation and peculation, inspired by an insatiable thirst for riches, which seem to rule every other consideration, and every order of  men." Indeed, the letters of Washington, written a hundred years ago, within sight of Independence Hall, where Congress was now wrangling over personal ambitions, to the utter neglect of the public interests, sound very much like the lament of our day, over the imbecility, self-seeking and corruptions, of modern political life and manners, as compared with what we vainly imagine to have been the purer days of the Republic. Think of this great and good man, under his burden of disproportionate responsibility, in the third year of the war, shocked by the unseemly gayety, even revelry of the Capitol, while his brave soldiers hard by, were suffering every privation in their winter tents, writing thus of the National Congress: "An assembly, a concert, a dinner, a supper, that will cost three or four hundred pounds, will not only take off men from acting in their (the public) business, but even from thinking of it, while a great part of the officers of our army are quitting the service, and the more virtuous few, rather than do this, are sinking by sure degrees into beggary and want." Such glimpses disclosed by history, of times with which we are wont to associate only sacrifice and patriotic devotion, will not increase our esteem for average human nature, but may serve to teach us, that what we are prone to call the degeneracy of the times, is only history repeating itself; and that it is ever the virtue of the few, against the selfishness of the many, that saves a good cause, in the supreme hour of its peril.
It was in the midst of such painful anxieties at the prospect of affairs and with abated confidence in the wisdom and patriotism of Congress, that Washington framed the policy of the summer campaign of 1779. It was to act upon the defensive along the Atlantic border and operate vigorously, to put an end to the ravages of Indian warfare upon the defenceless settlements.
The chief center of these savage raids, such as had desolated Wyoming and Cherry Valley the previous summer, was the British fort at Niagara, between which and our own Fort Schuyler, lay for the most part the six Iroquois nations, which, with the exception of a part of the Oneidas, were in active alliance with the English. Lafayette had already proposed, for this summer campaign, the conquest of Canada with the aid of the French naval forces; and the project was regarded with favor by a large majority of Congress, who appeared to think, "It needed only some such dashing blow to end the war."
But Washington vigorously opposed the scheme, as beyond the military resources of the country, and on grounds of expediency as well. If it were practicable, and success, attended it, he saw that it might lead to the re-establishment of France in Canada, and prove a temptation to subordinate American interests to her old ambitions on this continent. Moreover, he saw in the present French alliance, one cause of the false security, which was paralyzing the patriotism of the country, and deemed it unwise to multiply national obligations, by asking assistance from ever so sincere an ally, that was riot indispensible. The plan of a direct attack upon Canada, as proposed by Lafayette, gave way to the less imposing but more memorable expedition against the Indian allies of the English, which, if successful, would attain substantially the same results. Its purpose was the utter destruction of their towns, and, as far as possible, all means of subsistence, by laying waste their territory, as the only effectual method of dealing with a savage foe.
As early as April, and as a part of the campaign, an expedition from Fort Schuyler of 600 men, in command of Colonel Van Schaick, surprised the Onondaga towns, and destroyed them, returning to the fort without the loss of a man. This decisive blow at the central Iroquois nation, and the ancient capital of the confederacy, struck terror through the cantons, and did much to secure the success of the campaign. It left General Sullivan, who, by midsummer, had concentrated 3,000 troops at Wyoming, to operate directly against the Senecas and Cayugas. At Tioga, he was joined by General James Clinton with 1,700 men, swelling his entire command to not far from 5,000 regulars from New Jersey, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania and New York. The first encounter with the enemy in force, was at Newtown, six miles below the present site of Elmira, where Brant had made a stand with about 1,000 warriors, and some 250 regulars and Tories, protected by breastworks, and in a strong position. After a brisk but short fight, the enemy gave way, with considerable loss, that of the victors being only three killed and thirty-one  wounded. This was the only serious resistance to the invading army, and for the rest of the march, its work was one of simple destruction, burning deserted towns, and ravaging fields of standing corn, now fast ripening for the harvest. Nothing was left; and so general was the havoc, that the fugitives sought refuge for the winter at Niagara, where cooped up in huts built for them around the fort, and fed on salt meat, the scurvy broke out among them, and a number died.
It was on the return of the army from the Genesee country, and at, or near, where Geneva now stands, that Colonel William Butler, of the Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment, was detached, with 600 men, to lay waste the Cayuga canton, with the same unsparing hand. An Oneida sachem, with several warriors of that well disposed tribe, here interceded with General Sullivan, to spare the Cayugas, who, it was claimed, were at least neutral, and it was agreed that they should accompany Colonel Butler, and if the Cayugas were found in their villages, to persuade them to acknowledge subjection to the Federal arms, and thus save their canton from destruction. A part of the detachment consisted of three companies of Morgan's corps of riflemen, especially skilled in Indian warfare. Two years before, when Burgoyne's Indian allies had become the dread of the American troops, especially the militia, Washington sent Colonel Morgan, with five hundred of his riflemen in aid of the Northern army, to fight these savages after their own fashion; ''They are all chosen men," said he, "selected from the army at large, and well acquainted with the use of rifles, and with that mode of fighting. I expect the most eminent services from them, and I shall be mistaken, if their presence does not go far toward producing general desertion among the savages." Not only at Stillwater, where Burgoyne was defeated, but in other of the most important engagements of the war, they performed distinguished service. The flag they carried into battle, bore this inscription: "1776, XI. Virg'n Regt. Morgan's Rifle Corps." Each was an unerring marksman, and their united charge upon a savage foe, is said to have been terrible.
Colonel William Butler was an experienced officer, known for his bravery and skill, and particularly qualified for the service, with which he was here entrusted. After the battle of Monmouth, he was sent to garrison the middle fort of Schoharie, on the Mohawk border, exposed, continually, to Indian raids, and was with General Clinton, at the junction made with General Sullivan, at Tioga, where he was assigned to General Hand's brigade. I must notice, here, a strange and persistent error of our most accredited historians, who give the command of the detachment to Colonel Zebulon Butler, famous for his heroic, but ineffectual defense of Wyoming the preceding summer. Not a little sentiment has been wasted, on the poetic justice of entrusting to this brave soldier, the duty of avenging the cruel massacre, which followed his defeat by the Indians and Tories, in the Wyoming Valley, while the simple fact is, that he was returned to his old post, on the Susquehanna, and was not in the Sullivan Expedition.
It was on Monday, September 20, at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, so definite is the journal from which I quote, that Colonel Butler, with his detachment, left Kanadesaga, near the foot of Seneca lake, and proceeded along the outlet, for a distance of eight miles, to the site of the Indian town, Scau-yase, which had been destroyed by Colonel Harper, on the outward march of the main army.
Early next morning, Major Scott was temporarily detached, with two hundred men, to destroy the corn in the vicinity, while Butler continued his march, eight and one-half miles, to the Cayuga outlet, which the troops crossed, at a point where the stream was several rods wide, wading breast deep in the water. Here they struck the Cayuga village of Choharo, known to the Jesuit fathers, a hundred years before, as Tichero, or "place of rushes," and named by them, as one of their mission sites, St. Stephen, four leagues, or ten miles, according to the Relations, from Goiogouen, the castle of St. Joseph. Choharo had maintained its ancient site, on the northern extremity of the lake, and on what is now the farm of John La Rowe, but had dwindled to two or three houses, each, however, capable of holding several families. Butler found the place deserted, and fired the buildings. He was now rejoined by Major Scott, and continued his course, along the principal trail, half a mile back from the lake, burning scattered houses, and destroying  the crops, on the route, till within a mile of the castle, where the army halted for the night, having made eighteen miles on the second day's march, without, as yet, encountering the sight of an Indian.
Early the next morning, they were at the far famed capital of the Cayugas, which they found to consist of fifteen very large houses of squarred logs, superior in their construction to any the army had as yet seen in the Indian country, with two out-lying villages, containing respectively, thirteen and fourteen large houses, with several scattered dwellings, the whole comprising a commodious town, of about fifty inhabitants in all, situated in the midst of extensive cornfields, with gardens and orchards, abounding in vegetables and fruits, but completely abandoned of its inhabitants.
As seen by Greenhalgh, the traveler, a hundred years before, it consisted of three villages about a mile from each other, having, in all, about a hundred houses. "They intend," he adds, "the next spring to build all their houses together, and stockade them. They have an abundance of corn, and lay within two or three miles from the lake."
This was in 1677, twenty-eight years after the first Jesuit mission was founded here, by the brave and gentle Menard, who, during the single year of his labors, to win this fierce people to the Christian faith, encountered almost every form of indignity and peril. Once a maddened warrior rushed at him with knife in hand, to cut his throat; and, repeatedly, in some freak of fury, a tomahawk would be hurled at his head, and his escape would be as if by miracle. The little children, even, would beset him in the streets, hooting or screaming at him, as if he were a lunatic; and it is recorded, that he wore to the day of his death, many years afterward, amid the forests of upper Michigan, the scars of the scratches with which these little tormentors covered his face, in the streets of Cayuga.
Here, also, on the resumption of the mission, in 1678, one year after Greenhalgh's visit, was the scene of the missionary labors of that devoted and accomplished Jesuit, Stephen de Carheil, for sixteen years, regarded in his time as a saint and a genius of the highest order, sacrificing noble talents, through which, had he remained in France, he could have attained the highest honors, both literary and ecclesiastical—eager only for the fate of his brethren, who had bedewed Canada with their blood, and had already won the coveted crown of martyrdom. Although a guest of the distinguished chief, Saonchiowaga, the steadfast friend alike of the missions, and the French, he, too, run his gauntlet of perils among the fierce and insolent people, exposed to every whim of the savage, sometimes chased with the hatchet, sometimes pelted with stones, finding refuge in the lodge of his patron, or within the more sacred enclosure of his bark chapel, until after sixteen years of hard but almost fruitless labor, he was plundered of what little he possessed, and driven forever from the canton, by Orehaone, the great war chief of the Cayugas, and the Five Nations. This was in 1684, when France was fast losing her hold upon the friendship of the Iroquois, and the arms of the Duke of York were being nailed up in their villages, as the symbol of their alliance with Great Britain. But now, in 1779, the times had turned, and the contest is between England and her own colonies, in which the Cayugas, true to their traditions, retained their ancient allegiance, and were furnishing their quota of warriors to harass defenceless settlements with burning and massacre, in retaliation for which, their own homes and fields were now being laid waste. Evidences of their active participation in the existing war, were not wanting about their deserted castle, notwithstanding the claim of the Oneidas on their behalf. Muskets with the brand of the United States, beside soldier coats of blue, faced with white, the well known continental uniform, taken, doubtless, from prisoners or stripped from dead soldiers, were discovered by Butler's men while ransacking the town. More than all, a number of scalps, as if freshly taken, were found hung up in their houses, as they were wont to do with these peculiar trophies of their prowess.
The Oneida sachem and his warriors, had no answer to Colonel Butler, when showed these silent witnesses of the hostility, not to say perfidy, of their Cayuga brothers, but to ejaculate assent to the justice of their punishment.
Nothing more remained, but to give the place over to the fate which had been visited upon the towns of the Onondagas and Senecas; and without further delay, the troops  went to their work with a will, cutting up the standing corn, covering about 110 acres, until nightfall, without completing the task. The place also teemed with such fruits as apples, plums and peaches, and with such vegetables as potatoes, pumpkins, squashes, turnips, beans and onions, with all the signs of provident comfort.
If game in the forests, and wild fowl on the lake, were as abundant then, as to the eyes of Father Raffeix, in 1672, when more than a thousand deer were killed, in a season, in the vicinity, and the lake swarmed with geese and ducks, even in the winter time, while in the spring, the very air was darkened, with clouds of all sorts of game, then the Cayugas, up to the hour of the destruction of their canton, must have had all the conditions of plenty, averse, as they were, by nature and habit, to peace. In Raffeix's time, the town boasted three hundred warriors, despite a long and wasting war with the Andastes; and, as if forecasting their future strength, the Father adds, ''a prodigious number of small children." One of the journals of Butler's expedition, mentions the finding of a quantity of salt, reminding us again, of the observant Jesuit, in his account of the seven or eight salt springs, he was shown, in the vicinity of Tichero, ten miles away, especially attractive to wild pigeons, where he often saw from seven to eight hundred caught, in a single stroke of the net.
It was not until the afternoon of Thursday, the 23d inst., that the work of ruin was completed. The order of procedure was, to fill the spacious houses with the corn, vegetables and fruits, after cutting down the orchards or girdling the trees, and then set fire to the town, careful to leave naught, that could shelter or feed the inhabitants, should they venture to return; and this, on the eve of approaching winter.
It was four o'clock in the afternoon, when Butler left Goiogouen, a completed ruin, and moved, with the army, to the remaining village, distant about four miles, and located at, or near, the spot where we are now assembled; and where, ten years after, was built the first house, by the first settler, who ventured to fix his abode within the ancient territory of the Cayugas. It was known as Chonodote, from its extensive peach orchard, which contained, at this time, not less than 1,500 trees, thrifty, and loaded with fruit. Here, too, as at Goiogouen, were found apples and plums in profusion, with a large breadth of growing corn, and other supplies in abundance, for the approaching winter; and the monotonous work of ruin, was plied with all possible dispatch. The town, consisting of fourteen houses, chiefly old buildings, was fired at ten o'clock Friday morning, and the troops moved on, and after a march of sixteen and a half miles, encamped on "a pleasant hill, overlooking a finely watered plain," not having from the beginning to the end of the expedition, encountered the presence, nor heard the sound of an Indian.
A march of ten and a half miles, the next day, (Saturday,) over rough hills, and through tangled swamps, brought them to the site of Dehorisscanadia or Coreorgonel, as named in one journal, peopled by a remnant, a tribe of the subjugated Catawbas, located some three miles above the head of the lake, which Colonel Dearborn, on his march down from the west side, had already left a smoking ruin.
Thus fell the Cayugas, with the other nations of the Iroquois confederacy, the history of which is so largely that of the country itself from its earliest settlement, to the formation of the republic.
And here we may well pause to ask, what gave the Iroquois this distinction and made them such an important factor in the problem of destiny? It could not have been one to their numbers, or the largeness of the territory, which was their fixed abode. The "Song House," as they were wont to call their immediate territory, where stood their castles and other towns, stretched only from the Mohawk to the Genesee; and in the height of their power, they could muster hardly 2,500 warriors, and numbered less than 11,000 souls.
These last figures fall short of their present population, though a century has passed since they disappeared from history, without a country they call their own, or bond of government, broken into groups, and living on reservations or under agencies. There are, to-day, in the United States and Canada, more than 13,000 bearing the Iroquois names  and lineage.* This is a larger number than the most reliable estimates gave them, in the palmy days of their strength; larger than in 1649, when they overthrew the great Huron nation, the friend and ally of the French, on their western border, and scoured the forests of Michigan for a stray Indian that may have escaped the general massacre; or in 1668, when they had extirpated their nearer neighbors, the Neuters and the Eries, besides humiliating the French to their own terms, and filling Canada with misery and blood; or in 1672, when after many a fierce encounter, with alternate defeat and victory, they swept their ancient enemies, the Andastes, from both sides of the Susquehanna, along its main and west branches; larger than when the war shout of an Iroquois struck terror, alike through the settlements of New England and on the banks of the Illinois, or at any period of their terrific prowess which has won for them the title of the "Romans of the West."
Their geographical position was, doubtless, a leading condition of their pre-eminence over the other aboriginal nations with which they contend for the mastery, as it manifestly was in the kindred strife between the French and English colonies. It included within their immediate sway, says Bancroft, "The headlands, not of the Hudson only, but of the rivers that flow to the gulfs of Mexico and the St. Lawrence, the bays of the Chesapeake and Delaware.
It gave them the same command on the war path, in whatever direction their interest or ambition might lead, that New York holds, as the Empire State, of the natural highways of commerce from the Atlantic to the west. This, however, would have been of less advantage to these native lords of the soil, but for their superiority in other respects.
If they are to be estimated by their political system, dating its origin back into the dimness of legendary tradition, they were wise above their time; and we may ask whence the wisdom that could frame a government at once, so elastic to natural freedom and yet so girded with the strong bands of federal union, so nicely adjusted with check and balance, and yet so suited to a wild democracy, that it excites the surprise and admiration of modern political science. Each nation was a sovereign republic and yet all were held together in a league which made the concurrence of each, in representative council, essential in matters pertaining to the common welfare. The Union stood in an unwritten constitution, and no parchment could have rendered it more sacred or indissoluble. Public opinion was the source of authority, and law was founded in precedents handed down in oral tradition.
Individual honor and popular esteem enforced loyalty and obedience, and in the absence of courts and juries, the offender found his sure and speedy punishment in the shame and contempt that crushed him, beyond hope and pardon. Personal worth, alone could win place and distinction, and official position, was as permanent as the meritorious conduct by which it was attained. No emolument was attached to office or station, and the popular choice was the sole reward of virtue and valor. Their annals consisted in deeds pictured in simple and truthful symbols which told their own story, and their war songs preserved the renown of their heroes. Their sachems were as prudent in council as their braves were terrible in battle. The skilled diplomacy of Europe found its match in the Council Chamber at Onondaga, and no eloquence moved to speedier or more determined action, than that which fell from their orators, with all the charm of nature and skill of logic, rivaling the studied arts of culture.
They were scarcely more haughty in their bearing toward the savage nations with whom they were in conflict, than in their demands of Onontio at Quebec or Corlear at Fort Orange. Allies they were of one or the other, French or English, as best suited the purpose in hand, but they repelled with characteristic pride, subjection to either. They buried the hatchet or dug it up again; planted the tree of peace or cut it down, to serve the ambition or need of the hour.
* Former and present number of our Indians, by Colonel Garrick Mallery, U. S. Army.—Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1877.
 English fire-arms which put them at such an advantage with their enemies proved more acceptable than French missionaries whose teachings were of humility and peace. The superiority thus gained, however, in the end procured their downfall. In the after fortunes of the Iroquois, when to retain their territory, if not their ancient prestige, they otherwise could have made common cause with the other native nations and swept the English from American soil. But they had either destroyed their natural allies, or converted them into implacable enemies, and so at last, it was their alliance with the English, ending of necessity in absolute dependence, that sealed their fate. They fell with the independence of the colonies, but not until they had, however, unwittingly, turned the scale in favor of liberty.
None of the actors in the struggle that antedates the Revolution, could have foreseen the grand results as they now stand out in the light of history. Each and all were needed to prepare the way for the Republic, in which liberty and law could dwell together. Today we rehearse the story that we may see, in part at least, what it cost to rear this fair fabric of freedom and Christian civilization, and the debt we owe to those who shall come after us, that through no fault of ours, shall a single one of its blessings fail from among men.
Hon. W. H. Bogart was then called on, by President Morgan, to make the closing address, and after a few pleasing preliminary remarks continued by saying:
That he was in the position of a lady who gives a party and prefers the guests should speak. The Rev. Mr. Franklin, who is himself a history, need not to have uttered one word, but only to stand up before you, a relic—a descendant from that day when men fought for their lives. He told you Rev. Dr. Hawley and Mr. Bogart, were full of history. It is true, in relation to the one who has just preceded me, (Dr. Hawley.)
Mr. Bogart spoke of the conflicts of the war, and said the torch of war is sometimes used to light men to their liberty.
As one of the citizens of Aurora, I am filled with gratitude to you, and the venerable clergy here present, that we have rescued one hundred years from the history of the past. We would ask, whether we are not repaid for our labors, in behalf of this great occasion, or taking the diamond that a hundred years has dusted over, and setting it in the casket of history, for our present gratification, for the use and admiration of future generations. Our country has a history that equals in interest that of France, England, or the great snow-land of Russia. That our soldiers have come to the front and wrought deeds of valor, along the sweet Susquehanna—our beautiful Cayuga, and the fair lakes and rivers—bright threads of silver that ran through this land.
Men have come forward and spoken words and performed deeds that make our country's annals so glorious. You young people here to-day, may forget the remarks made on this occasion, but do not forget that we have taken up the thread of an hundred years ago, have reached back over the thousands over whom our mothers have wept tears of sorrow, thus connecting the links of the long chain uniting the future with the past. You can say to-day to other communities, that we bequeath to them a wonderful history—a history which though sowed in sorrow, was reaped in joy.
Though the morning came, (he concluded,) with the tears of dismal rain, yet ever faithful to duty, prepared our feast, our arches, and our illuminations and though no one came to join with us in our festivities, history had come and that, for us, was enough. [Applause.] And to-night, we hope to renew the bright bonfires in peaceful remembrance of the days when Old War stood up and showed his flaming visage.
 THE ILLUMINATIONS.
The illuminations in the evening were very attractive, presenting along the line of Main street a scene of variegated beauty and fairy splendor, worthy of such an intelligent and highly cultured people, and not the least exciting feature of this closing centennial anniversary scene, was the bonfires on the lake shore, being promptly answered by Seneca County people along the western bank, in the same manner, heart responding to heart, in the memory of a joyful deliverance, in the long past, and for the present priceless privileges and bounteous blessings, that are now the portion of a highly favored and duly grateful people.
We inadvertently omitted in our report of the centennial proceedings to state, that a wooden arm chair painted black and brought from Washington's Library at Mount Vernon, and now in the possession of Colonel Morgan, was now in the procession, and occupied by Colonel Morgan, was carried in the procession and occupied by Colonel Morgan in Academy Hall, as President of the day.
It is worthy of mention, that besides the Rev. W. S. Franklin now of Syracuse, Mr. S. N. Franklin of Ledyard, also a son of Roswell Franklin, was present at the celebration. Three daughters are also living, Mrs. Almira Hovey in Wisconsin, Mrs. Ann Eliza White in Genoa, and Mrs. Pamela Brady in Ohio.
There is a memorial window, bearing the name, date of birth, and death of Roswell Franklin, the first settler, in the Presbyterian church at Aurora.