January 29, 1795

[No. 2507]

LEYDEN, October 20.

Maelstricht being blockaded on all sides and probably besieged by the French, no intelligence can be received from it. We know only that, besides the Dutch garrison, lieutenant-general Klobeck, and general Kempf have thrown themselves into it, with eight battalions of Imperialists, and 200 Austrian cavalry.

In general, we are under the utmost uncertainty with respect to events in places the nearest to us, all communications being cut off, and all correspondence intercepted.

A letter from Gueldres of the 14th says, that according to several reports, general Jourdan had marched with a corps of several thousand men against Venlo, and summoned the place on the 14th; that no French troops had then appeared at Gueldrei, although one of their patriots had been at Stralen and several leagues beyond it. But letters from Wesel, of the 18th, say, that on the evening of the 15th, a corps of 500 French entered Gueldres; that they had thrown some bombs into Venlo, without attacking the place regularly; and that Grave was not then attacked.

There is a corps of French troops near Crevelt and another corps is bombarding Dusseldorp, in which the houses are said to have suffered greatly, particularly the elector's palace.

AMSTERDAM, October 20.

The reports from our frontier bring nothing extraordinary. In Gueldres, the utmost ardour appears in the preparation for defence. It was reported at Utrecht, that the French were advancing against Thiel. This report was occasioned by a French officer and a trumpet having been sent to that place. It appears that the enemy, wishing to disencumber themselves of the sick and wounded of the garrison of Bois-le-Duc, had made an offer to send them to Thiel, and this offer has been accepted.

The territory of Gueldres is to be disputed inch by inch, with the enemy. Batteries have been erected on the dyke of the Lek, on the side of Utrecht.

All the persons of distinction, who have property in the barony of Bois-le-Duc, have received orders from the enemy, to return to their lands within a given time, with notice, that in case of failure, their property will be sold for the benefit of the French republic.

The baron David's is gone with Mr. Windham to London. Some accounts say, that the former is to claim more effectual succours from that court, to second the energy of the operations which may be adopted for our defence, whether by a rising of the people in a mass, or by the inundations.

Others state that the baron has a proposition to make, that Holland, looking to the difficulty of its situation, and the little probability of making head against the enemy, should be allowed to withdraw from the confederacy, and to make a separate peace with France. It is even reported here, that overtures for a general peace are actually 2on the tapis.

VIENNA, October 4.

On the 1st instant, our court was assembled in council. Such a measure was never adopted before. The whole ministry and Aulic council of war were present. The deliberation lasted from half past nine in the morning till four in the afternoon, when several couriers, after having received their dispatches from baron Thugut, were sent to different courts and to the army.

The report of peace is still prevailing, and a congress is talked of.

Oct. 8. It appears by the late dispatches from Warsaw, that the Russians and Poles have been alternately the victors and the vanquished, in the recent engagements between them; the former beat and dispersed a corps of general Grabowski; while, on the other hand, on the 18th ult. the vanguard of general Suwarrow was defeated by general Siera Kowski on the Bug. The main body, however, rallied, and proved victorious the very next day, and it is supposed, that after forming a junction with the corps under general Denizow, consisting of 7 or 8000 men, an attempt will be made upon Warsaw, provided the bad weather does not speedily set in.

While victory hovers in suspence between these two powers, she has declared herself decidedly against the Prussians; for the Poles have had uniformly the advantage over them during all the recent engagements in Great Poland.

As to the Austrians, they have entirely evacuated the territories of the republic, and now occupy their former quarters in Gallicia.

Here follows a copy of a proclamation, attributed to Kosciusko.
"In the name of God, and our country!
"The supreme regency of Poland hereby solemnly promise.
"I. That every soldier who shall leave the Austrian colours shall receive a 1ducat in gold over and above the full value of his arms, and (if in the cavalry) his horse. He shall not be forced to enter the service of the republic, but on the contrary be allowed to go wherever he pleases.
"II. Every soldier who chuses to serve in the army of the Poles until the end of the war, shall receive a small freehold from the republic, be exempt from statute labour, and entitled to all the privileges of a free man.
"Neighbours, and old friends, you are now to decide whether it will not be better to unite with us, than to prosecute innocent men, who have never done you any harm, and who offer your lands, liberty, and, in one word, every thing that can contribute to the happiness of an honest man.
"Wherefore would you shed the blood of the Poles? Have you not already spilt a sufficient quantity in that useless war which you have waged against the French?
Chear up then, Hungarians, Gallicians, Bohemians and Austrians, and hasten to join us - it is peace that we are in search of, and neither death nor murder."

The marquis de Lucchesint is just arrived here, and has already had a conference with the baron de Thought. The object of his mission is to obtain the execution of the guarantee treaty; if his majesty of Prussia is not gratified in this, he threatens to withdraw all his troops from the banks of the Rhine.

The last intelligence from Warsaw, dated Sept. 26. contains nothing extraordinary, unless it be, that the Poles, full of indignation at the stories trumped up by the defeated Prussians, relative to the poisoning of a well, etc. near their camp at Wols, are about to publish the most satisfactory contradiction.

The success of the insurgents in Great Poland is truly astonishing; in order to render it more complete, general prince Ponlatowski, with a fresh body of troops, has marched hither.

The defeat of the Poles near Brizefe in Lithuania, was not of that fatal nature that has been represented. The stoof firm for some time, fought with the courage of veterans, and at last retreated still facing the foe. In short, instead of a defeat it may be termed a victory; for Suwarrow is represented as having lost three or four thousand men, and has been prevented from forming a junction with general Denizow. Kofciusko, the Polish generalissimo, has set out in order to give Suwarrow battle; he is already at Sielce, or Sielsko, as it is termed in the map.

The Poles flatter themselves with the assistance of the Turks, who are said to be making some extraordinary movements in the neighbourhood of Bender.

Earl Spencer and Mr. Grenville left this capital at three o'clock yesterday afternoon, but notwithstanding a large remittance which they received a little before their departure, their mission is said to have proved inauspicious and unsatisfactory.

Our politicians say, "that they have received every mark of politeness, many promises, and a variety of handsome presents, but that notwithstanding all this, they did not depart contented. No ending quotation marks are present

We are assured, by letters from Piedmont, that the Austrians have abandoned Carcare on the Genoese territory, and that they are retreating, by Acqu, to their old camp, under the walls of Alexandria.

BERLIN, October 23.

The account of the defeat of Kosciusko is now confirmed. We have learnt the following particulars of it: Having received the news of a defeat which a corps of the Polish army had met with at Brizese in Lithuania, and that general Suwarrow was on his march to attack Warsaw, general Kosciusko resolved to march with 20,000 men, and give battle to the Prussian general before he should approach that city.

He was, however, informed that general Fersen. This last general resolved to attack Kosciusko on the 12th, when a most dreadful engagement ensured. Twice the Russians attacked with vigour, and twice they were repulsed.

The victory would have remained with the Poles, had they contented themselves with having beaten back the enemy, but resolving to pursue this advantage, they abandoned the favourable position which they had taken upon the heights, and advanced in their turn to attack the Russians. the Russian troops formed themselves anew, succeeded in throwing the Polish line into confusion, which was already a little in disorder from their movement in advancing to the attack. The rout was soon complete. The Polish infantry defended themselves with a valour approaching to fury. The cavalry suffered less and retreated in good order.

General Kosciusko himself, who performed prodigies of valour, received a wound in the neck with a sabre, fell from his horse, and was taken prisoner. Prince Ponistorski hearing of this defeat, fell back with the main body of the Polish army to Warsaw. - The taking of that city will not be an enterprise so easy as was expected.

Ponistowski's army is still 16,000 men strong, and he is supported by the whole inhabitants of Warsaw. Generals Madalinski, Dombrowski, etc. are at the head of strong detachments in Poland. The country is covered with armed citizens, who are enthusiasts in the cause. The reduction of Poland must therefore be a work of labour. So much is our court convinced of this, that orders have been given for the return of 20,000 men from the army of the Rhine. These troops will march immediately into Poland.

LONDON, November 8.

The letters from the empire state, that the Germanic diet at Ratisbon has absolutely resolved to open negotiations of peace, and baron Dalilberg, the coadjutor of the electorate of Mentz, is said to be already on his way to Paris for that purpose.

Letters from Vienna of the 25th inst. confirm this intelligence, and state, that two British 2plenipotentiaries were hourly expected there to be present at the conferences.

The progress of the French army on the Upper Rhine is dreadful and alarming. Coblentz fell into their hands on the 23d ult. besides Binghen, St. Goar, and other places on the Rhine. Their out posts were only at the distance of two leagues from Mentz, against which they were advancing in three columns. This place has actually a garrison of nineteen thousand men, and a most formidable train of artillery.

The whole of the Prussian army has crossed the Rhine, and 10,000 Prussians garrisoned the city of Francfort, where the greatest consternation prevails. These alrming movements have also induced the elector palatine to sue for peace, and the interference of Denmark and Sweden, as neutral powers, he has been proposed for this purpose.

The head quarters of the Prussian general Mollandorff, were at Hockheim on the 21st ult. 20,000 men of the Prussian army of the Rhine were hourly expected to march to the frontiers of Poland and Silesia, and 15,000 to Wesel, to defend the Prussian possessions in Westphalia. Mentz and the palatinate are therefore defended entirely by the palatinate and the Austrian troops.

Our letter from Haerlem of the 3d instant, gives the following account of the affairs of Holland. At Hedikhuizen, in the environs of Heusden, the French have erected batteries to molest the allied troops, but they being out of reach, are of no effect.

The garrison of Venlo, reduced to only 900 able men, from 4000, which was their number at the surrender of that place, is arrived at Boxtel. The express condition upon which they capitulated, is not to serve in defence of Nimeguen.

The garrison of Venlo made an unsuccessful sortie on the 21st, in which they had three officers wounded, and 59 non-commissioned officers and privates killed. The French, however, continued their works; and their fire having killed the best part of the brave garrison, a capitulation was easily concluded on the 2Sep ultimo.

On the fifth article of the capitulation, respecting the emigrants, having been refused by the Dutch commandant, who said he would rather defend the place to the last extremity; the French general Laurent, who commanded the siege, agreed to his demand.

Nimeguen has been greatly reinforced and stregthened; the duke of York has sent some additional troops into the town, and a few days ago six battalions of Dutch artillerists marched in with a large supply of provisions, ammunitions, etc. The garrison consisted of 15,000 men.

The French opened their trenches before Nimeguen only on Saturday night last, but on Tuesday had not begun to fire upon the town.

On Wednesday last a sortie was to be made from Nimeguen, for the purpose of destroying the enemy's works. In this case the garrison were to be assisted by twenty-five thousand Austrians who now co-operate with the duke of York.

A bridge had been thrown across the Rhine at Wesel, by which the Austrians were to pass on Tuesday last, and on Wednesday the concerted attack was to be made. General Werneck, at the head of a thousand horse, was to make a diversion in that quarter, to draw off the attention of the enemy, while the real attack should be made.

The duke of Brunswick has arrived at Nimeguen, and taken upon him the command of the allied army employed in the defence of Holland.

In Holland every thing is quiet.

Nov. 10. With sentiments of deep regret we communicate to the public the following intelligence which has been received by a merchant at Amsterdam, That the Russians have again been successful against the Polish patriots; that they have defeated prince Poniatowski, and taken Warsaw by storm. Happy shall we be to be able to contradict this most ____ring intelligence.

[The above intelligence wants confirmation - especially when our readers consider that Hamburg and Rotterdam papers as late as the 8th of November, which we have received, make no mention of such a circumstance. They contain the latest advices from the frontiers of Poland, and give us cause to believe that the account is premature.]

Letters from Hamburg mention, that the gallant Kosciusko survived his wounds but a short time; that after his death his head was severed from his body, placed on a pike, and carried through the ranks of the Russian army.

A fresh plot has been discovered at Rome, against the life of his holiness the pope; 1500 persons are concerned in it, and 58 of them are in custody.

In our paper of Saturday, we stated, that a sortie was to have been made by the garrison of Nimeguen in the night between the 4th and 5th. We are now enabled to inform the public, that the sortie (principally by the 12th regiment) was made in the night of the 4th, and that it was successful, the greatest part of the enemy's works before Nimeguen have been destroyed. [Sun.]

We have several letters from different correspondents in the army, which confirm the advantages gained over the enemy by the garrison of Maestricht in a fortunate sortie which they made a few days ago. Some of our letters state the loss of the French at 2000 killed, others at 3000, and some even as high as 4000 men. Certain it is, it was very considerable; the works of the enemy were destroyed, and the cannon spiked.The Austrians lost from 900 to 1000 men in the glorious and fortunate enterprise, which may probably be the means of the siege of Maestricht being raised. [Sun.]

BOSTON, January 14.

There is a report in town - but its source we could not trace - that the English had made overtures to the French, for a cessation of arms; and that the ministry of Great-Britain had it in contemplation to join the Poles against Prussia. We do not give the article as received from any authority whatever.

Jan. 15. The ship Three Friends, captain Cha____, arrived at Plymouth on Monday, in 63 days from Dunkirk. Yesterday a young gentleman belonging to this town, who came passenger, came to town from Plymouth. He has favoured us with the following article from a Paris paper of November 8, 1794.

"The siege of Maestricht continues to be pursued with the same vigour and courage by the republican army. This place is attacked on three sides at once. Fort Vick by general Berndotte with 13 battalions; that of St. Michaels by general Ponsett with 14 battalions; and the body of the place by general Duhem, with 30 battalions. General Kleber takes the command of the whole; the Rhine is established as the line of 4circumvallation. The prince of Hesse who commands at Maestricht, has been summoned to surrender and refused; the soldiers are discouraged and desert continally from the place; a sortie, has been made in which they were vigorously repulsed."

1 A ducat was a gold coin used in various European countries.
2"On the tapis" is an old idiom for "under consideration".
3Plenipotentiaries are diplomatic agents, such as ambassadors, who are fully authorized to represent their government.
4The 1913 Webster dictionary describes "circumvallation" as being "(a) The act of surrounding with a wall or rampart. (b) A line of field works made around a besieged place and the besieging army, to protect the camp of the besiegers against the attack of an enemy from without."