T H U R S D A Y
January 22, 1795
TURIN, October 1.
The French attacked all our out posts last week, and met with unexampled success. Our soldiers, and even generals, are tinctured with Jacobinical principles, and never shew any disposition to face the enemy. They have made prisoners 1200 of our troops. After the defeat of the brave general Martin, who was made prisoner, an universal panic spread through our array. It is confidently reported that his majesty has made overtures for peace, in which he has been seconded by the grand duke of Tuscany.
MENTZ, October 7.
The arming of the empire meets with increased opposition daily, and of all the members, the elector of Mentz, and the bishop of Fuldz, have alone acceded to the propositions of the court of Vienna. The minister of the elector palatine even declared to the assembly of the circle of the Lower Rhine, in answer to the last Imperial memorial. That the assembly would act widely if they concerted the means for the re-establishment of peace.
We hear the advanced posts of the French are beyond Berehem. The last battle between the allies and the enemy was most bloody. The latter assaulted the mountain of Merzenich four times - the mountain was defended by several 24 pounders. Though repulsed in each assault, they returned to the charge, and at length obtained possession of the mountain. The Austrians lost a great number of men near Alderhoven, and three battalions of Hulans were annihilated. The regiment of the hussars of Barco lost nearly 300 men.
MIDDLEBURG, October 20.
All the Dutch troops, as well as the English, have now completely evacuated every part of Flanders. The French are in possession of Phillipine, Hulst and the whole chain of forts, which a short time since were occupied by the Dutch.
BRUSSELS, ___ Brumaire, (October 22.)
The English and Dutch armies, had united the principal part of their forces about Nimeguen and Gorcum, with an intention to pass the Meuse, make a general attach on the army of the republic, to endeavour to force it to fall back behind Bois-le-Duc! and by this means to hinder its penetration into, Guelderlard. The military operation was executed the day before yesterday, between the city of Grave and the fort of Crevecceur, but with the worst success possible for the coalesced satellites. The enemy was not only repulsed, after a very obstinate engagement; but lost 700 prisoners, among whom are 60 French emigrants, whom a court-martial will immediately judge. Besides this the enemy lost four pieces of cannon, and a standard.
They write from Cologne, that a very active correspondence is carried on between general Jourdan's and the Austrian army. - Flags of truce pass and repass incessantly without any one knowing the object of the negotiations. A few days since an Austrian colonel arrived at the (French) head quarters, at Cologne.
The garrison at Maestricht made a spirited sortie the day before yesterday; but it was as usual, repulsed. The siege of this fortress goes on, and we have every reason to expect it will speedily be obliged to capitulate.
BAS__, October 19.
They write - "This morning we received the important news, by Mr. Marevel, that peace had actually been concluded between the king of Prussia and France. Mr. Marevel and two French commissioners had signed the treaty."
Another letter adds, that this treaty was signed at Neaschatel on the 12th, and consists of six articles. As we have not received any information of the above, by this day's mail from Berlin, we must wait its confirmation.
VIENNA, October 2_.
The reports of a peace being near at hand increases our joy every moment.
Monday and yesterday there was a conference of all the ministers, and it is said the subject was concerning peace; that they occupy themselves therewith very much, is beyond a doubt - Meanwhile the preparations for war continue with alacrity; whereby the old adage is confirmed - "Who wants peace prepares for war."
THIEL, October 23.
Yesterday, after a French trumpet had sounded a call, an English officer and trumpet went to the opporsite bank of the Waal in a boat, where the French delivered a letter to the following purport:
"The small share of humanity you possess made the sick soldiers of the garrison of Bois-le-Duc wait twenty-four hours on this dyke in waggons. I have sent them to Mineguen.
(Signed) BONNEAU, general."
The English officer who commanded here would not consent to the request of the French, to receive the sick at Bois-le-Duc without the orders of his royal highness, the duke of York, in which he did well, as the duke refused it.
Three French hussars lately crossed the Meuse with their horses, and came to join the British army, among them is the son of general Thevenot, who returned lately from America, in expectation of some good situation, but being disappointed has deserted.
AMSTERDAM, October 25.
By letter from Nimeguen we received information, that on the 19th a very bloody action had taken place in that neighborhood, (between the Waal and the Meuse, near Drouley) between the English and the French - The right wing of the allies was repulsed by the French, and several English regiments had suffered much; while, on the contrary, the Hanoverian dragoons had cut off a corps of French hussars and cut many of them to pieces. The allied army has thereupon fallen back close to Nimeguen - and the French have on Monday shoewn themselves already on the barrens of Michemschen, and on Tuesday by the __uice of Teerschen; on which day part of the cannon out of the works of Nimeguen had been sent already over the Waal; over which river chief part of the English troops, some Hanoverian regiments, and the whole of the Dutch garrison, had passed; the latter of which had marched to Rheenen, to occupy the line of Grey. Wednesday the head quarters of the duke of York were to move to Aroheim.
Letters from Emmerick mention, that on the 19th the French had entered Cleves with 600 cavalry, and had appeared the next day in small bodies on the Rhine.
In a letter from Berlin, of the 18th of October, they mention, that the Prussian contingent of 20,000 men to the Austrian army, commanded by general Kalkreuth, have been ordered back into Prussia.
HAGUE, October 21.
A gentleman just arrived from Manheim states, that the elector palatine is disgusted with the war, that his troops are dispirited, and that many of the German princes are determined to make peace at any rate, during the course of the ensuing winter.
FRANCFORT, October 25.
In Mayence are 15,000 men, to defend it, 5000more were expected, and the Imperial advanced posts stands six miles off, where the French are encamped close by. All suspected persons are sent off, and nobody is allowed to speak of a surrender of the place.
WESEL, October 19.
We have but very few complaints concerning the French from the other side of the Rhine; and by very rapidly; For as much as we know from Crevelt, from whence none can get off but by flight, the French behave themselves with great propriety; and while their commanders have granted the promptest satisfaction to different complaints of the citizens and peasants, the fright occasioned by the enemy, in the beginning, is entirely done away.
The post-master at Crevelt has been ordered to forward no letters over the Rhine on pain of death.
Hitherto the French have exacted no contribution. They pay every thing to the merchants in assignats, which occasionally they receive back. Of course our loss hitherto has been very inconsiderable.
Of a requisition no mention has been made yet. Some ammunition and provisions have been bought for account of the nation, while, however, they demanded a greater number of horses than Crevelt and its district could furnish, believing that Gueldres and Meurs were also attached to it; upon the remonstrances made to them, they have shewn themselves very reasonable on that head, leaving the stipulation of number to the sense of the villages, having made ready payment in assignats for what they received.
LONDON, October 25.
Earl Spencer is daily expected in town. - He left Francfort on the 16th, and passed through Wesel on the 18th instant, from whence he proposed going to the British head quarters, on his way to England. He returns without having succeeded in the object of his mission. The Imperial court, it seems, demanded much higher terms for prosecuting the war against France than earl Spencer had powers to grant; in consequence of which the negotiation is broken off for the present, without any arrangement having been concluded. The emperor, it is said, demanded no less a sum than five millions sterling, a sum which could be demanded with no other view than that he might meet with a denial. If this be absolutely the case, and there seems but too much reason to believe the statemtn is just, it can only be accounted for from the effect produced by our good ally the king of Prussia, in treating with the French without having consulted the other allies, which leaves the emperor exposed to the attacks of the whole French army on the Rhine. It appears probable, that if an actual treaty has not been ratified between the Prussians and the French, at least such arrangements have been made by them, as to leave each other at perfect liberty to pursue the objects which each many find it convenient to adopt for their individual interest. Lord Malmesboury, in consequence, is on his return home.
The effect produced upon the public mind by these unlooked for events is various in its operation. One consequence however has been a rise in the funds, from a p_____sion that peace must be the consequence. - It may be _______ are persuaded the period is by far more distant than many would foldly hope. Nay, some letters from Berlin assert that there is no truth whatever in the mumour which states that the court is nrgotiating a separate treaty with France. A short time will develope some of the present mysteries.
Oct 30. Advices from the Hague state, "That at a late assembly of the states general at the Hague, all the deputies of the different towns and provinces were unanimously of opinion that it would be indespensably necessary to set on foot negotiations of peace. In consequence of this disposition, several gentlemen have been appointed to repair to the courts of the different combined powers, to request their co-operation towards this important end; and that a congress should be forthwith held. M. Fagel, gressier to the states general, is to be the ambassador to the court of St. James's.
Oct. 31. It is now considered as certain that the king of Prussia has formally notified to our ministers his intention of withdrawing all his troops from the war against France, except his contingent as a prince of the empire; and as he has various unliquidated claims on the other states of the empire, he will most probably find a pretext for withdrawing his contingent also.
No. 4. No intelligence whatever has now been received from the British army since Tuesday; some little alarm prevails in consequence.
A French cutter of 14 guns, called La Calliope, looking into the Texel to discover the number and condition of the Dutch men of war at that place, now the grand rendezvous of the navy of Holland, was on the retreat met with by Le Jalon Dutch sloop of 20 guns, with whom she had an action of half an hour, but was obliged to submit, and was carried to Enc_-hayssen in the Zuyder sea.
The following communication was made to the convention on the 5th Vendemairie, (September 26) by citizen Schmidt, a maker of musical instruments; Citizen representatives, my profession is that of a maker of piano-fortes; but I sometimes lay aside this art, which merely belongs to those which are termed the polite arts to fall on such mechanical discoveries as may be useful to humanity.
I am the inventor of an hydraulic machine, calculated for diving in the water to any depth watever. The diver may saw, drive nails, make holes, fasten cordage, and collect articles at the bottom, without compression either of water or air, holding at the same time conversation with those who are above.
A machine like this may in many cases be of extreme utility to the republic.
I now present to the national convention, a plough, which is so constructed as to require less than half the usual force to draw it; that is to say, in common hands it may be managed with one horse or one ox, and in clayey or other soils, considered as the strongest, with two horses or two oxen.
Letter from the same.
The fire which lately broke out in the ci devant Abbey of St. Germaine, gave occasion to remark, that whatever had hitherto been contrived to stay the progress of this destructive scourge was insufficient, and that all the expedients fallen on merely presented the means of snatching from the flames those who, being in their chambers, could only escape by leaping out of the casement, the stair-case having already caught fire. This observation suggested to me an idea of a bridge-ladder, with which assistance may be given to those whom the fire may prevent from descending the the stair case. This ladder rises at pleasure, and being brought to the necessary height, the bridge, which extends itself to the distance of 12 feet is thrown out, and rests on the window. Should this invention merit the adoption of the represwentatives of the people, I demand that one or two may be placed in each depot of fire engines at Paris, and as many as may be deemed necessary in each of the other cities of the republic.
Letter from the same.
DUBLIN, October 24.
The emperor will, it is supposed, be compelled shortly to negotiate for peace. From the exhaulted state of his dominions and those of the electors and princes of Germany, even the most tempting offers of a subsidy will scarce indece him to rish the hazards of another campaign. To attain the desirable object, he must put up with the loss of the ci-devant Austrian Netherlands, relinquish all future claim to Lorrain and Alsace, heretofore co-estates of the German empire, and acknowledge the French republic. The king of Sardinia will probably do the same by the cession of the dutchy of Savoy, which appears long since to be irrecoverably lost to him; and it is likely the court of Madrid will follow the example, by ceding the Cerdagne and other districts near the Pyrenees. Thus, if the Seven United Provinces be conquered by the republical armies, England will be left alone to maintain the contest.
BOSTON, January 5.
Captain Bradford, ship Five Brothers, arrived here yesterday, after a passage of 55 days from l'Orient. By him, Paris papers are received to the 5th of November. - From these, the following paragraphs are collated.
The French fleet, at present, cruises principally in small squadrons. One of these detachments, lately fell in with two British seventy-fours - the Canada and the Alexander. After a smart engagement, the Canada bore off, but the Alexander was taken, and carried into Brest from whence the news of her capture, and arrival, was received at l'Orient the day before captain Bradford left that port.
The Spanish army of the eastern Pyrennees, has been severely chastised by the soldiers of the republic. Twenty-five hundred men were left dead on the field; and as many taken prisoners. By this victory the French are in possession of the most valuable foundery in Spain.
The capital of Holland, the great exchange of the commercial world, involves, in the uncertainty of its fate, the apprehensions of many. The last intelligence from that quarter, announced, that a formidable opposition, to the present government, was now organized, and ready to rise in open rebellion, at the first favourable moment. The feat of this insurrection will not be confined to any individual city; but will extend from Amsterdam, to Leyden, Utrect, Dort, H___lem, and all North Holland.
Two days before the departure of captain Chambertain, (of the brig Mary) from Lisbon, a Swedish ship arrived there, having on board the captain and several of the people belonging to a Portuguese ship, taken by a French squadron cruising off the rock of Lisbon - The ship's cargo was valued at 50,000 crusadoes - the captain reported that the French were determined to stop all vessels with provisions and stores bound to Portugal; captain Hallet in the Paragon, and captain Ervin in the Dolphin, both from Boston to Lisbon, were captured by a French squadron, and French sailors put on board of them; they remained with the squadron 10 days, when seizing an opportunity afforded by a gale of wind, they left the squadron, and arrived safe at Lisbon. Captain Ervin left his mate and some of his people on board the French ships. The above fleet had taken an English packet, bound from Lisbon to Falmouth, and several right prizes from the Straits, laden with raw-silk and drugs.
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