T H U R S D A Y
January 1, 1795
COLOGNE, October 3.
he French yesterday made a general attack upon the imperialists, and drove general LaTour back near D____, upon which the whole army left the Roer in the night, and will take post on the Er__. The baggage will this day be placed on the outer side of the Rhine. Gulik is in the hands of the French.
BERCHEIM, October 3.
The whole army which was encamped in the plain of Liewenicher is filing through this place, the head quarters are coming to
DUSSELDORP, October 6.
General Kerpen, who was followed by the French when he retreated from R___mond, was thereby prevented from joining general Clair___, and was obliged to make good his retreat over the Rhine to this place. The enemy endeavoured to cut off his retreat, and harrassed his rear very much. Nevertheless, he found means to pass the Rhine in good order, and the French were prevented erecting a redoubt on the other side. The battle with the rear of general Kerpen's army, and the consternation occasioned by it here, caused it to be reported that Dusseldorf was bombarded.
The posts go their usual routes on this side the Rhine.
GORINCHEM, October 10.
Within these four days the water in our neighborhood has risen very considerably - On Monday the ___ices of Dalem were opened, and nothing but water is to be seen thereabouts. The scissions in the dykes, and opposite Loeve_lein and Wund___hem are all ready, and all the Monikeland has been under water since Monday. Yesterday 300 peasants marked in here, and we expect 200 more. The head quarters of the Dutch army are expected here this week.
Seven hundred English are in Bommel, and 3000 more are on the island. Vast numbers of ships are before Bommel, and several gun-boats are there also. No vessel may go higher up on the W__l than Th__l.
Fort St. Andre was destroyed by 3_0 peasants between Friday and Saturday night: the cannon and ammunition were sent over the W__l, where batteries are erected, which can fire upon the fort. The fort was evacuated on Saturday, and on Sunday the enemy were seen upon the spot.
In the district of the Thiel quarters are preparing for 9000 men. The firing against Bois-le-Duc has entirely ceased.
LOWER RHINE, October 4.
We are informed that the plan of general Clairfayt was to unite his forces with those of the duke of York, and jointly to attack the enemy; but this scheme was rendered abortive by the French passing the Meuse between Ruremond and Venlo with 30,000 men, and attacking the Austrian army in front and flank, obliging them to quit their position on the Roer, and to retire to Cologne.
We have just received accounts that the Imperialists are passing the Rhine.
RHINEBERG, October 6.
The rapid retreat of the Austrians from Ruremond has enabled the French to make themselves masters of Nu__. This day they have sent patroles along the Rhine, and have taken some vessels laden with e___.
NUYS, October 5.
____ now certain that the French have entered ____. On the second they formed an army of 18,000 men at Kussel. The commandant at Venlo sent a partole to reconnoitre the enemy, but it was too weak to venture far: they, however, made some prisoners, and learnt that the French had entered the province of Gulik. A column of 20,000 French are marching towards the country of Kuik. The motions of the French are __vari___ that the allies cannot tell where the enemy mean to direct their attacks.
The consequence of the attack upon the corps under general LaTour was, the general retrograde motion of the Austrian forces, ____, last position was upon the the Er__, which runs by this place. The baggage is re_______ as fast as possible over the Rhine, and entrenchments are forming along the shore. The army will pass as soon as the baggage is safe.
Yesterday the Austrians under general Kerpen, broke up from Ruremond; and marched this way by _________ so that Ruremond will be in the hands of the French this day.
EMERICK, October 8.
By the last accounts from Cleves, the advanced posts of the French are at Hoogstradt, near Mon_, and we are even assured they reach as far as Goch. They have already thrown bombs into Dusseldorp, and have sunk some vessels on the Rhine at Ordingen.
The Rhine has been shut since yesterday, and all the vessels have been obliged to retire either to Arnhei_ or Wesel.
The French are said to have found a rich booty at Ordinger of Imperial equipages, and even artillery, which, although they were shipped, fell into their hands.
General Clairfayt's army is at Mulheim, on this side the Rhine.
Hanoverian troops are arrived here, and more are expected, who will endeavour to defend this side of the Rhine.
WESEL, October 7.
We have received accounts that the bombs thrown by the French into Dusseldorp, from the other side of the Rhine, have set fire to several parts of the town; the Imperial stables, the hotel of Coustole and the Imperial post house are already burnt down; the great tower is not only burnt but has fallen in, and by its fall done much damage. The post and couriers which went to that place from hence are come back again. When the post set out the castle was in flames.
BRUSSELS, October 4.
The works before Bois-le-Duc advance with such rapidity, that the second parallel is already entirely finished, notwithstanding the violent fire which the besieged keep up from the walls of the place. The principal strength of Bois-le-Duc consists in the marshes and inundations wherewith this city is surrounded, but the capture of Fort Crevecceur has given the republicans the means to draw off these waters by ditches made for that purpose.
It seems that the duke of York and the hereditary prince of Orange, warriors, who notwithstanding their youth, have rendered their names famous by the most brilliant exploits, it seems, I say, that these heroes will make some venturous attempt to try to save Bois-le-Duc, for this purpose all the English, Dutch, Hessian and Hanoverian Troops, hitherto divided into different corps have joined between Hoosden and Gertraydenberg. But general Pichegru who saw through the intention of the enemy, has taken an excellent position, between the combined army and Bois-le-Duc, by means whereof the siege of that place is continued with safety.
The day before yesterday the enemy attempted a general reconnoitring of the army of observation, but this turned out unfortunate enough for them, for they were not only repulsed but a party of the hussars of the princess of Orange were cut to pieces by the republican cavalry. The city of Breda is only closely surrounded.
The bombardment of Maestricht is continued with the greatest vivacity; it rains bombs and red hotballs in that city, which will very soon be nothing but a heap of ashes and ruins, unless they capitulate very soon. The besiegers are preparing to make a strong attach on Fort St. Pierre the strongest bulwark of Maestricht.
ROTTERDAM, October 1_.
Yesterday the news reached us of the surrender of Bois-le-Duc to the French on Thursday last, which with the capture of Crevecoeur, and Fort St. Andre which had been previously evacuated, that the artillery and stores in it might not fall into the hands of the enemy, gives them an uninterrupted possession of the whole barony of Bois-le-Duc; opens to them the passage of the Neuse, and facilitates their __uption into the province of Nimeguesh.
We do not precisely know the cause of the surrender of this important fortress, as it was amply supplied with stores and provisions. The garrison, we understand, were allowed the honours of war, and the same terms of capitulation as were granted to the garrison of Crevecoeur. We also learn, that the surrender was accelerated by a mutiny in the town, some of the inhabitants of which were no doubt sent in long ago by the French, as spies, and to take advantage of circumstances, insisted, on a capitulation. There is every reason to believe, that nothing but treachery could have thrown this fortress so soon into the hands of the French, who could hardly have been able to continue the siege many days longer, as well on account of the inundation, as the heavy rains which have overflowed the country, and must have been mortally destructive to the besieging army.
We have this day learnt that the French had passed the Meu__, but we knew nothing of their further proceedings. The island of _ommel is every where fortified, and a very numerous English garrison has been sent to Thiel, to defend the passage of the Waal near there.
We have yet no particulars of the late unfortunate defeat of general Clairlayt's army; nor have we heard any thing of that wing of it commanded by general LaTour, which is said to have suffered most.
We are sorry to learn that the beautiful city of Dusseldorp has been almost wholly consumed by the fire of the enemy from the opposite banks of the Rhine. It is said that scarcely a house is left standing. The French have advanced to Cologne, where general Jourdan has established his head quarters; but general Clairfayt, previous to their reaching that place, had the bridge destroyed. The French have likewise taken possession of Bonn. The electorate of Juliers and Cologne offer the French vast heaps of plunder. The churches, and convents in these two counties are many of them immensely rich.
A proclamation has been issued by the stadtholder, that whoever is in the service of the government, and shall quit his post, shall forfeit it, and his goods be confiscated. -Many persons have, however, quitted Holland to go to Hamburgh; -and many more are packing up their goods to set off. But I have not the least apprehension that the French will be able to make any progress into Holland this campaign.
PARIS, October 11.
The victory over the Austrians before Ju______ and the Roe; is a very important one. As a consequence of it the city and citadel of Juliers __________ with an immense artillery and warlike ammunition of all kinds. The republican army pursues closely the Austrians who fall back pr__________ly on Berghem, and thence on Cologne. The greater part of the French cavalry is on the heels of the enemy's rear guard, harrass them continually and has made a great number of prisoners.
As to the siege of Maestricht, the works for the construction of entrenchments and batteries are carried on with all possible rapidity. The garrison of that place made a vigorous _ally the day before yesterday, in number about 4000, but after a very bloody action they were driven back with much loss.
The works before Bois-le-Duc have been pushed forward with such rapidity notwithstanding the difficulties which the nature of the ground presented that a number of batteries are there perfected, and have already injured some of the external works of the place, while the bombardment destroys the interior.
That night there passed here a considerable convoy of warlike ammunition, consisting of upwards of 200 carriages loaded with bombs, bullets, powder, etc. half for the siege of Maestricht, and half for that of Bois-le-Duc.
The desertion is on its height in the Austrian army; even old Hungarian grenadiers, desert their colours to come here, a thing hardly ever known before.
LONDON, October 14.
From Kowno, in Lithuania, there is intelligence, that 600 Russian infantry, with some artillery, had embarked upon the Niemen, in order to surprise that town, which being known to the Polish general Me_oa, he posted a detachment of troops in the woods bordering on the river, and on their passage firing with hot balls, destroyed and sunk most of the boats with the Russians.
Letters from Berlin of the 30th ult. state, that the king has prohibited the exportation of gunpowder to South Prussia, in consequence of the Polish Jews buying it up, and selling it to the insurgents.
The elector palatine of Bavaria has signified to the assembly of the Rhenish states on the Upper Rhine, that it would be expedient to open negotiations of peace with France, and to deliberate speedily upon the means of attaining that end.
By the letters from Holland, brought by the mail which arrived on Sunday, we learn the confirmation of the unfortunate result of the action between the French and general Clairfayt, who, although he defended himself with great skill and bravery, was at last obliged to yield to the numerous superiority of the enemy and retreat again across the Rhine; in consequence of which all communication is cut off between the British and Austrian armies, as well as with Maestricht, which place is completely invested, but it is defended by a garrison of 13,000 men, and it is thought will not easily surrender.
The French, by the accounts of a fugitive emigrant, are said to have crossed the M_____, between _______ and Grave. The same letters emigrant, are said to have crossed the M_____, between Vento and Grave. The same letters ___, that press exertions are making in all parts of the Even Provinces to prevent the enmy from penetrating, (illegible printing) those rich countries; that the proper (illegible printing) been marked where to cut the (illegible printing) to inundate the country; and that in (illegible printing) the people have armed in defence of their property.
Oct.16. The letters by the mail from Holland yesterday bring accounts of the combined forces, particularly those under the duke of York, and the Dutch, concerting towards the Seven Provinces, in order to prevent the French from Entering by the way of the province of Guelderland, etc. Part of the English occupy the _mes of the Grebbe, which run from Theenan to Naarden; and the country thereabouts will be inundated, to make them the more secure. The French are are in possession of the dutchy of Cleves, and most likely will soon enter Nimeguen. The grand stand will be made on the borders of Utrect and Guelderland, the inhabitants of which provinces will, it is said, rise en masse, under the command of prince Frederick of Orange; which, if they do, they will, from the local situation of the country, be able to keep the enemy out.
SALEM, December 9.
Extract of a letter from a house in Lisbon, to a respectable merchant in this town, dated October 9, 1794. "We beg leave to advise you, that if this war continues, our present prices may be supported, as now the king of England has declared by proclamation, that all neutral vessels shall be at liberty without molestation, to carry grain to France, or any port they may deem proper; therefore we cannot expect such supplies as we have hitherto had from the Baltic; the most part will drop into France - therefore the Spanish and Portuguese markets may be supported, though we have had above 60 or 70 cargoes of wheat, within this month. Advices at this post, from Spain, hint at a rise in the corn market there. Codfish is an article that, to all appearance, would leave you a handsome profit."
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