JAYHAWKERS OF CONFEDERATE LOUISIANA
© By W. T. Block
(click here for W. T. Block web page)
The Calcasieu and Mermentau Jayhawkers
There was much enthusiasm in Louisiana when the American
Civil War first began. The wealthier cotton and sugar planters usually
owned many slaves, and the war was seen by them as the only way to
preserve the plantation manner of life. Many young men flocked to the
colors, seeking the glory and fame that a soldier life might bestow upon
them, unmindful that war most frequent gifts were death and severed
limbs instead of fame. Many youths enlisted, fearing the war would end
before they could see action, and almost no one foresaw a war that would
last for four years.
A year later, though, it became increasingly obvious that
the war would last much longer. However, events of April, 1862, were soon
to dampen enthusiasm for the war among Louisianans. In that month, the
Confederate Congress passed a military draft for all men ages 18 to 35,
later extending the years from 17 to 50 for three years of service. Also
in April, 1862, Admiral David Farragut West Gulf fleet ran passed the
Lower Mississippi River forts to capture New Orleans, leaving only Port
Hudson and Vicksburg to block the Union Navy advance along the entire
Very quickly thereafter, the Civil War became known as "a
rich man war and a poor man fight." While the Confederate government
championed the cause of States Rights, many poor Southerners soon viewed
it as a war to preserve the institution of slavery, and hence the way of
life of the wealthy planter class that slavery permitted to flourish. It
is believed that only one out of each twenty Confederate soldiers actually
owned slaves. While a few of South Louisiana French Acadians belonged to
the planter class, most of them were poor farmers, who depended for farm
labor on their own large families, and who regarded the conflict as "the
American war" (la guerre de les Americains). 1
The first evidence of Louisiana Jayhawkers appeared
with the Union invasion in May, 1863 of the Bayou Teche country between
Opelousas and Brashear (Morgan) City. And very quickly three groups of men
could be identified, all of whom the Confederates labeled as "Jayhawkers."
The first of those were draft dodgers and conscripts, who hid out in the
swamps. One writer explained their intents and way of life as follows:
...Many honest and hard working men deserted or evaded
the draft because they never owned a slave, never participated in the
planter way of life, and decided not to defend it. They are not to be
confused with the bands of lawless men, composed of deserters and draft
dodgers, who organized into bodies which they called...guerrillas. They
were mounted and armed... 2
A third group whom the Confederates also called
Jayhawkers were Unionists, whom General Nathaniel Banks permitted to take
the oath of allegiance, and he organized them into a regiment known as the
First Louisiana Scouts, who did little in 1864 except exact "revenge
against their former neighbors..." 3 More about the
Louisiana Scouts will be recorded later.
In May, 1863, a half dozen or more Texas Confederate
units were transferred to General Taylor command to help defend against
the new Union threat advancing north along the Bayou Teche. And the
principal supply route from Texas moved by train from Houston to Beaumont,
by steamboat from Beaumont or Sabine Pass to the Niblett Bluff
Quartermaster Depot, and then by wagon from the depot to Opelousas. Wagon
traffic along that artery was two-way, loaded wagons moving to the east
and empty wagons returning to Niblett Bluff to reload. And that route
adjacency to the bottomlands of the Sabine, Houston, Calcasieu, Mermentau,
and Vermilion rivers, as well as Bear Head and Beckwith creeks and Bayous
Serpent, Nezpique, des Cannes, and Plaquemine Brule, made it an ideal
location for Jayhawkers to prey on the Confederate supply line. In time
many more Texas and Louisiana deserters, also draft dodgers, free Negroes,
and escaped slaves, joined the many Jayhawker bands along that route.
Two 1863 letters from a Lake Charles clergyman explained
the social disarray that existed in Southwest Louisiana when the effects
of the draft and General Taylor retreat before the Union forces were
felt. A lengthy quote from the first letter, dated August 23, 1863,
Things in Lower Louisiana: ...The facts presented to us
leave no doubt that there is a system of wholesale stealing going on in
that (Calcasieu) section of the country that would astonish most of our
readers, and we regret to say that Texans are largely concerned in the
thieving operations. Gangs of Negroes have been enticed away from their
owners by various false representations, and brought into different
parts of Texas and sold... Some of them have run away from their
seducers while being brought into Texas, and being unacquainted with the
country, are now occasionally seen in gangs, wandering about, nearly
starved to death... Indeed their statements are often confirmed. Texas
officers and soldiers, as well as private citizens, are often implicated
in these disgraceful operations...
...We fear many of our citizens have been badly
swindled by buying slaves thus stolen from Louisiana plantations... It
is further stated... that a large amount of the property captured by our
troops after the retreat of (Gen. Nathaniel) Banks has been
appropriated, by wagon loads, by certain officers and individuals, and
we have reason to believe that some of this property has been sold in
the (Houston) black market...
...It is stated that the Louisiana deserters who ran
away to escape the service are now in the Calcasieu River bottom, and
with the few Negroes in their company, number about 700. They are said
to be very desperate and are perpetrating the most horrible outrages
from time to time, which are retaliated on them occasionally by our
troops in a manner almost too shocking to relate...4
Another letter written from Lake Charles on September 16,
1863, confirmed that considerable Jayhawker problems had arisen in
Imperial Calcasieu and neighboring parishes, as follows:
Things in Lower Louisiana:...The number of deserters
and others rendezvousing in the swamps of the Calcasieu are sometimes
stated... as seven or eight hundred... The best information I can get
shows that... about September and October, 1862, some persons residing
in the north of Calcasieu and the west part of Rapides parishes, who
were subject to the Conscript Act of April, 1862, absented themselves
from home in order to avoid being enrolled and formed in camps in the
woods - on the Sabine; one on the Calcasieu, near the boundary line
between this parish and Rapides; and one on Beckwith Creek in Calcasieu
...I obtained information of these camps, numbers, etc.
and communicated to an officer in the Confederate States service...He
did nothing to disperse them. Encouraged by the immunity enjoyed by
these, others were emboldened to join them. As soon as the exemption law
was made public, this sent their hide-outs many more recruits. It was
soon observed that the immediate neighbors of the enrolling officer were
staying home. Young men, his intimate acquaintances, were in daily
attendance upon their ordinary vocations in the near vicinity of the
enrolling officer residence...
...Persons whom everyone knew had no lawful exemptions
were returned home from Camp Pratt, exempted from military servic.
Public officers shelter their kindred under various fraudalent
pretenses. By April, 1863, deserters came and went with the same freedom
in the parishes of Rapides, Vermilion, Calcasieu and St. Landry. Nothing
is being done to suppress them, and others, who would cheerfully enter
our service, are deterred from doing so by fear of the injury that may
be done by the Jayhawkers to their families. Indeed we are here without
protection of law, with stealing and plundering by passing soldiers and
others as the general order of the times...5
In October, 1863, Colonel Augustus Buchel First Texas
Mounted Rifles were stationed at Niblett Bluff and were patrolling
throughout Imperial Calcasieu Parish. Buchel did not report breaking up
any Jayhawker bands, but he did note the capture of some Unionists -
"William Griffith, the bridge burner, and Desire Labove, a deserter from
Fournet Regiment; and Joseph Ritchie, a very dangerous character, and
supposed to be one of their spies, will be forwarded to the provost
marshal in Houston..." 6
Also in October, 1863, one of Buchel troopers, Captain
Matt Nolan, wrote about two blockade-runners, loaded with gunpowder, that
were at anchor in Mermentau River. Nolan reported that:
...Lieutenant Aikens is of the opinion that the
(Mermentau) Jayhawkers are watching the two schooners in the Mermentau,
and that the moment they attempt to unload their powder cargoes, they
(the Jayhawkers) will seize them. He says they can raise 200 men,
well-mounted, in two hours time... 7
First Sergeant H. N. Conner, whose four-year diary
records his participation in twenty battles and skirmishes between
Opelousas and Morgan City in 1863, also reported the presence of
Jayhawkers on several occasions, as follows:
...Regiment sent to catch jayhawkers. Found their nest,
but no birds in it... Near Flat Town, (La.), two of our men were
captured by jayhawkers not more than 500 yards from camp, were disarmed,
then taken 5 miles from camp and turned loose. A few days before, the
jayhawkers had taken two men of the 2nd Louisiana Cavalry (Colonel W.
Vincent Regiment) and they murdered them in a most horrible manner...
While en route to Texas for clothing on the Alexandria and Burr Ferry
road, about 50 miles from the ferry, we were taken prisoner by the
jayhawkers, but were released in about half an hour...8
The brutality perpetrated by the Jayhawkers against the
2nd Louisiana Cavalry soldiers perhaps accounted for why Colonel Vincent
hunted and hounded the Jayhawkers with such a vengeance in Vermilion,
Lafayette, and St. Mary parishes. One such example was reported in a
letter of Captain W. J. Howerton, as follows:
...I have just learned from Doctor (Milledge) McCall,
who is down from Grand Chenier, that the commander of Louisiana District
has sent a force into the (Mermentau) Jayhawkers, and that force is
capturing and killing them off, hanging the scoundrels. When the doctor
left up there, some 9 or more had been captured, a good many more
killed, and they were then hemmed in a place called Toussand Cove, and
still fighting... 9
Doctor McCall had ample reason to hate the Jayhawkers,
for his son, Milledge, Jr., had been killed in a fight with the Mermentau
Jayhawkers. Dr. McCall also lost another son, Lt. Bill McCall, at the
Battle of Mansfield. The writer grandmother, Ellen Sweeney, was a
teenager on Grand Chenier during the war, and having no glass windows, she
observed that they barred the wooden shutters not only to keep out the
mosquitoes, but also the black panthers from the marsh and the Jayhawkers,
who rode up and down the ridge at night.
Another story about the Calcasieu Jayhawkers was
published in Lake Charles American Press about 1910, and was told by Mrs.
Babette Goos Fitzenreiter of Lake Charles. She too was a teenager in the
Daniel Goos home at Goosport in 1863 when Ewell Carriere and his Jayhawker
band came for a visit. Her story continues:
...During the war, my father, Captain Goos, operated a
hospital for wounded Confederate soldiers in our home in Goosport...10 He was also engaged in the highly profitable business
of blockade-running, buying cotton around this country, and taking it
down to Matamoras in the old Lehmann. He received $30,000 a cargo for
the cotton, and the schooner ran the blockade four times.
...One day a young man about 25 or 30 years of age,
very handsome and debonaire, and attired in the uniform of a Confederate
officer, came to our home. He had with him about 25 or 30 men. Father
told him to come in, provided quarters for his men, and brought the
officer into the house... We entertained the officer at dinner... I
played the piano, and we sang, and had an enjoyable evening...
...In the morning after breakfast, the young officer
gathered together his men... As they started to ride away, the young
officer turned around. "Do you know who I am?" he asked. "I am Carriere,
the Jayhawker." We all started back in great alarm. We had heard
terrible things about Carriere and his band. "Last night I came here to
rob you, Captain Goos. You have $30,000 in gold in a chest under your
bed. I came after that gold, and I would have burned your house and
killed you to get it. I might also have burned your mill. But you have
entertained us so royally that we decided not to take your money.
...With that, he and his men rode off. That night
father and mother got a spade, and he and mother took the chest out some
where and buried it. Three days later a man from Texas passed our way on
the way to Opelousas, where his daughter attended a convent. He was
driving a fine horse, hitched to a new buggy. That man fell in with the
Jayhawkers and was never heard from again...11
Whether or not Mrs. Fitzenreiter had Ewell Carriere mixed
up with Ozeme Carriere of St. Landry Parish is unknown. Ozeme Carriere
also had two brothers who were Jayhawkers (although none named Ewell), and
perhaps some nephews, Hilaire Carriere, a convicted murderer, being one of
According to one writer, Colonel William Vincent 2nd
Louisiana Cavalry had perhaps the highest ratio of French Acadians
mustered into it than any other known Louisiana unit. There is one other
record of Vincent punitive expeditions against the Mermentau Jayhawkers
in March, 1864, as follows:
...A few days past, some of Col. Vincent cavalry came
in sight of Captain Cady, a Jayhawker chief, and eighteen of his
company. They were hotly pursued and driven to the Mermentau, and all
captured. A drum head court martial was at once formed, the party tried,
found guilty, and sentenced to death. The sentence was executed without
the least delay... 12
Following the Battle of Gettysburg and the Confederate
surrender of Vicksburg, it became ever harder to obtain Confederate
conscripts in South Louisiana. The following quote describes Duncan
Smith (the writer great grandfather) encounter with an enrolling
officer at Leesburg (now Cameron), despite the fact that Smith was 53
years old and supposedly exempt from conscription. The article
...On August 2, 1863, a conscripting vessel sailed to
the mouth of the Calcasieu and read the Declaration of the Confederate
Congress at Leesburg. Many called it a recruiting vessel...but (it was)
identical with the British press gangs of the War of 1812...
...The conscriptor was after troops - and did not care
how they were gotten. At any rate Duncan Smith was on the west side of
the river, and he immediately took to the water to get to his home on
the east side... It takes a good man to keep on rowing with one leg shot
to pieces... When Smith was nearing the shore, a woman came running from
the village and met him at the water edge... And when the woman
appeared, the firing stopped.... 13
Duncan Smith escaped that time with a minie ball in his
leg, but if drafted, he would have deserted anyway. Although born in North
Carolina and reared in Mississippi, he was an Abolitionist that hated
slavery with a passion. In April, 1864, he was "go-between" for the
Mermentau Jayhawkers for the sale of 450 stolen cattle and horses to the
Union Navy for $9,000 in gold. As a result, two Union gunboats, the Wave
and Granite City, anchored in the river to load the herd of livestock,
when the Confederate Sabine Pass garrison of about 300 soldiers and four
pieces of artillery attacked the gunboats on May 6, 1864. Following a
90-minute battle, the gunboats surrendered, and when the Confederates
searched Smith home, he escaped capture again by hiding under his wife
hoopskirts. Smith was the principal Union spy in Southwest Louisiana, rode
aboard the offshore blockaders at will, and at the end of the war, had a
$10,000 Confederate price tag on his head. In the meantime, the Mermentau
Jayhawkers, who had driven their herd to the Calcasieu, galloped away into
the marsh canebrakes and were not heard from again before the war ended.14
Ozeme Carriere and the St. Landry Jayhawkers
Without a doubt, the best known of the Louisiana
Jayhawkers, was Ozeme Carriere, who in 1860 was a 29-year-old male,
residing in the household of two Mulatto sisters, Mary and May Guillory.15 It does not appear that Carriere began mustering his
Jayhawker followers until the summer of 1863, so who the earliest bands of
St. Landry Parish were in 1862 is uncertain. One writer noted that women
around the Bayou Chicot area, northwest of Ville Platte, appealed to
Governor Moore as early as late 1862, as follows:
...We could not fare worse were we surrounded by a band
of Lincoln mercenary hirelings. These men pillage homes, stealing
anything they can find. And if you asked these lawless wretches, their
reply is that they are carrying out the orders of their Captain
Another writer observed that in 1859-1860, western St.
Landry Parish was already the scene of brigandage and various vigilante
groups engaged in guerrilla-like warfare. In the summer of 1863, it was
left to Carriere to recruit the disgruntled deserters and draft dodgers,
many of whom were Acadians or prairie Creoles, into a group that some
called "Carriere Battalion" of about 1,000 men. Their ranks also
included some Mulattoes, free Negroes, and escaped slaves.17 Apparently Carriere kept his forces broken up into much
smaller groups, since complaints about them always reported the plundering
of horses and arms by smaller groups of men. Bands of less than fifty men
could probably hide out in the forests and bottomlands without attracting
so much attention or retribution, although Carriere certainly had the
ability to communicate quickly with his other Jayhawker bands by
During the fall of 1863, Carriere united his Jayhawkers
into a close-knit and cohesive group. 18 His first haunt
was the Mallet Woods, but certainly by 1864 Carriere raids extended into
parts of Rapides, Lafayette, and Vermilion parishes. At first Carriere
became popular with the residents because of his defiance of the
Confederate Army and the Conscription Act. But during General Taylor
general retreat along the Red River in 1864, his band drew more deserters,
and his Jayhawker brigandage increased to much thievery and murder against
In February, 1864, several residents of St. Landry Parish
executed depositions that small bands of Carriere Jayhawkers raided
throughout the parish, stealing horses, weapons, saddles, blankets, cattle
and food. 20 Terry Jeansonne complained that after
impressing 500 beeves for the depot commissary at Cheneyville, he was
robbed by a number of Carriere plunderers. T. P. Guidry deposed that
seven Jayhawkers robbed him and his mother of a wagon load of corn, 2
horses, and other property, and Guidry recognized five of them to be Don
Louis Godeau, Agile Myers, Edouard Simon, Maxmilien Guillory, and ---
Francois Savoy deposed that while he was gathering beeves
in Prairie Hayes, he was accosted by an armed band of Carriere men, as
...(Savoy) replied that he was not a soldier and
belonged to no company. They then told him they would let him go if he
promised not to inform on them. They further told him that they were
acting under orders from one certain Ozeme Carriere; that in letting him
go, they would have to keep it a secret from Carriere to keep him from
punishing them... 22
During the same month the St. Landry enrolling officer
reported to General Taylor, as follows:
...The Jayhawkers swept over the country known as
Plaquemine Ridge, robbing the inhabitants in many instances of...all
their fine horses and good arms they could find...These lawless bands
are daily increasing in numbers; not only are they collecting the
discontented white and the free Negroes, but the slaves...are going over
to them every day...
...I speak from my own knowledge when I say that
Carriere is daily becoming more and more popular with the people, and
every day serves to increase his gang. These men are making the ignorant
and deluded suppose that they are their champions...that their object is
to bring the war to a close...
...The few men who report declare that they will never
leave home until some steps are taken to afford some security for the
defenseless ones they leave behind them...23
Captain M. L. Lyons of "Headquarters, Paroled Prisoners,"
reported to General Taylor that it would take 200 well-armed men to subdue
Carriere and his band. Lyons added that:
...those prisoners of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, of
which there are large numbers in this (St. Landry) parish, have in many
instances gone inside the Jayhawker lines and cannot be gotten out of
One writer believed that the Jayhawker chief, known as a
Dr. Dudley, received a commission from Union General William Franklin,
probably in the Louisiana Scouts, and that Carriere had been offered one,
but refused it. 25 It was after General Taylor defeated
the Union advance at the Battle of Mansfield and Generals Franklin and
Banks began a slow retreat down the Red River, that a major effort was
made to destroy Carriere brigands.
General Taylor assigned the duties of clearing out the
St. Landry and Rapides Parish Jayhawkers to Colonel Louis Bush 4th
Louisiana Cavalry, who in turn directed Lt. Colonel Louis A. Bringier to
complete the task. 26
Colonel Bringier conducted a totally repressive campaign
against Carriere Jayhawkers for next year, until May, 1865, during which
time the latter doubled their efforts to burn houses, pillage, and murder
civilians with a vengeance. When conscription laws ended, Carriere men
deserted and went home until only fifty remained in May, 1865, when
Colonel Bringier cavalry attacked them. During the onslaught, Carriere
was killed and Martin Guillory, Carriere chief officer, was mortally
wounded, thus concluding St. Landry Parish ugly struggle with the
The Louisiana Scouts and the Other
When the armies of Union Generals William Franklin and
Nathaniel Banks reached Alexandria late in March, 1864, hundreds of
Unionists or loyalists, whom the Confederates also called Jayhawkers,
began emerging from the forests and swamps, seeking to take the oath of
allegiance to the United States. One Union soldier described them as
looking "more like ragamuffins than men..." General Banks organized them
into a regiment, and he gave to Dennis Haynes command of Company B, 1st
Louisiana (Union) Battalion of Cavalry Scouts. Haynes managed to enroll
118 men into his cavalry company. 28 The life of the
Louisiana (Union) Scouts was relatively short after the Battle of
Mansfield. Although several of the companies retreated south with Banks
Union Army, four companies remained in Rapides Parish, and one company
entered the swamps near Catahoula Lake. 29 The Scouts
principally sought revenge from persons loyal to the Confederate States. A
person living in Alexandria noted that the Louisiana Scouts committed
...individuals their vengeance and vindictiveness. This
irregular force entered the residences of planters, carrying off
whatever they needed...In remote parts of the parish, they burned
One of those who was commissioned a Louisiana Scout was a
Dr. Dudley, also known as "Colonel" Duley, against whom "all manner of
outrages" were charged. Those included "houses...burned, livestock killed
or stolen...," and even assassinations. There is a discrepancy about his
ultimate fate though. One source noted that Dr. Dudley retreated to New
Orleans with Banks army, only returning to Rapides Parish after the
war. 31 Another source observed however that Dr. Dudley,
"a chief of the Jayhawkers," had been captured in January, 1865, and
executed. The same source reported the capture of some Jayhawkers,
location not shown, as follows:
...a band of them were routed in the swamps, and two
were sentenced to be shot. One of them had a wife and children who came
to see him, and oh! It was piteous to hear the weeping...!32
In February, 1864, Major R. E. Wyche and Captain G. W.
Smith company of cavalry, Louisiana State Troops, were ordered to flush
out the Jayhawkers in East Rapides and adjoining parishes, particularly in
the swamps between Lake Larto and Catahoula Lake. Their instructions were
to: "...hunt the Jayhawkers down with the utmost severity, and shoot any
with arms in their hands, making resistance..." 33
Another soldier active in the swamps of East Rapides and
Concordia parishes was David C. Paul, captain of Paul Rangers. One
description of him was that: "...Jayhawkers were killed wherever found and
without consideration..." Paul reputation for severe retribution against
the Jayhawkers enabled him later to be elected sheriff of Rapides
Apparently a large area northeast of Alexandria, probably
including swamp areas in LaSalle and Catahoula parishes between Little and
Black rivers, were "infested with recusant conscripts and jayhawkers," and
two letters to General C. J. dePolignac ordered: "...If Jayhawkers are
taken in arms, they will be summarily executed..." Some of their locations
were localized names difficult to identify, such as Big Creek, Holloway
Prairie, and David Ferry. 35
There were other parishes that were periodically molested
by Jayhawkers. As early as September, 1863, General P. O. Hebert at Monroe
was ordered to dispatch five companies of Colonel W. H. Parsons brigade
into Winn and Jackson parishes to "...break up the bands of jayhawkers
infesting that section of the county..." 36 In March,
1864, General J. L. Brent reported that: "...bands of deserters and
jayhawkers are infesting the country north of Red River and between Black
and Mississippi rivers. I have ordered Lt. Griffin with a detachment of
cavalry into that section of country..." 37
Another letter of April, 1864, reported an infestation of
Jayhawkers in Marion County, Mississippi on Pearl River, as well as in
Washington Parish, Louisiana. The writer added:
...In fact it is dangerous to travel in that part of
Louisiana...they (the Jayhawkers) are banded together in large numbers,
bid defiance to all authorities, and claim to have a government of their
own in opposition to the Confederate government...38
Even the Union forces that occupied the LaFourche
District around Assumption and Terrebonne parishes had their own troubles
with the Jayhawkers, who did not care from whom they stole food, horses,
or weapons. General Cameron, a Union general, reported in February, 1865,
...There is but one way to get rid of the guerrillas,
who infest and almost hold undisputed possession of the country from the
(Bayou) LaFourche to Grand Lake. If we pursue them with cavalry, they
take to their canoes and small boats. If we undertake to cut them off
with a gunboat, they run into a chain of smaller bayous where a gunboat
cannot follow them. The only plan left by which we can insure success is
to gather together what small boats we can at Bayou Bouef, and build
enough more to carry...125 picked men and fight them in their own
There is, however, one incorrect statement, that logic
maintains is in error, because no Jayhawker band would venture too far
from its safe hiding place in the forests or swamps, nor permit itself to
have to fight on the open prairie. One article reported that:
"...Jayhawkers sometimes stole children and sold them in Texas. Sarah
Dorsey told of 500 such children..." 40 An earlier page
noted that slaves stolen on Louisiana were being sold in Houston in 1863
by Texas soldiers returning from the fighting around Opelousas. Hence the
slave children were being sold or traded by the Jayhawkers to the passing
soldiers en route to Texas. The one exception might have been Jayhawkers
hiding out in the Sabine River bottoms.
Obviously the American Civil War as fought in Louisiana
was accompanied by as much heartache, military action, civil disobedience,
and bloodshed as in any other Confederate state, except Virginia. The
writer has an unpublished participant account of some twenty battles and
skirmishes, fought by a Confederate cavalryman between Opelousas and
Brashear (Morgan) City between June-November, 1863, that exemplifies some
of the worst fighting and dying similar to that at Gettysburg. As was
stated near the beginning, many Acadian farmers who owned no slaves
quickly reasoned that it was not their war that was being fought, despite
the knowledge of thousands of other Acadian Frenchmen who served the
Confederacy with distinction. The ranks of the Louisiana Jayhawkers
reached their peak around March, 1864, and included recruits of every
persuasion - deserters from Texas and Louisiana, draft dodgers, free
Negroes and escaped slaves, some of whom continued to fight even after
General Lee surrendered. It appears that every Confederate state had some
Jayhawker bands within its borders, yet it has generally been those
guerrillas of Quantrell stature that have drawn the most historical
attention. Hopefully that field will attract other historians in the
Many times the writer grandmother, Ellen Sweeney,
recalled that night riders or vigilantes continued to ride up and down the
Grand Chenier ridge, occasionally shooting or hanging people, for many
years after the war had ended.
- Gercie D. Daigle, "The Robin Hood of
Mallet Woods," Las Voix des Prairies, XI, No. 41 (Apr. 1990), 33. The
writer is also indebted to Ms. Daigle for furnishing the census,
genealogical, and succession data for Ozeme Carriere.
- E. Taylor, "Discontent in Confederate
Louisiana," Louisiana History, II, No. 4 (Fall, 1961), 424-425.
- A. W. Bergeron, "Dennis Haynes and his
Thrilling Narrative...of Western Louisiana," Louisiana History, XXXVIII,
No. 1, 36-37.
- "State ofThings in Lower Louisiana,"
Galveston Weekly News, Sept. 2, 1863, p. 1.
- "Letter From Lake Charles-Things in Lower
Louisiana," Galveston Weekly News, Sept. 30, 1863, p. 1.
- Buchel to Turner, Official Records,
Armies, in The War of The Rebellion, Ser. I, Vol. XXVI,Pt. 2, p. 400.
- Ibid., Noland to Livesay, Ser. I, Vol.
XXVI, Pt. 2, p. 347.
- H. N. Connor, "Diary of First Sgt. H. N.
Connor, 1861-1865," Unpublished, copies in various Louisiana university
- Letter, Howerton to Smith, Official
Records, Armies, Ser. I, Vol. XXXIV. Pt. 2, p. 1025.
- In May, 1864, Capt. Daniel Goos opened
his home for one month for both Confederate and Union wounded aboard the
captured gunboat Wave, which had been brought up the river to Lake
Charles, where some local persons did not wish to succor the "Yankee"
wounded. The men were survivors of the Battle of Calcasieu Pass on May 6,
1864. Their wounds were attended to by Union Assistant Surgeon Vermuelen,
who was a Confederate prisoner.
- Babette Goos Fitzenreiter,"Incident of
The Early 1860s," undated clipping, but about 1910, of Lake Charles
American Press, furnished to the writer by Mrs. Fitzenreiter great
granddaughter, Mrs. J. G. Miltner of Lake Charles.
- "Military Movements in Louisiana,"
Galveston Weekly News, May 16, 1864, p. 2, c. 3.
- "How Cameron Parish, La., Received the
Name It Bears," (Beaumont, Tx.) Enterprise, June 30, 1907.
- W. T. Block, "Annals of Duncan Smith,"
Cameron Parish Pilot, July 25 and Aug. 1, 1996; see Smith participation
in the Battle of Calcasieu Pass in Letter, Lt. Loring to Sec. Navy Gideon
Welles, in Official Records, Navies, Ser. I, Vol. XXI, pp. 256-259; also
see W. T. Block, "Calcasieu Pass Victory," East Texas Historical Journal,
IX No. 2 (Oct. 1971), pp. 139-144
- Eighth Decennial Census, 1860, St.
Landry, La., Parish, p. 130.
- E. Taylor, "Discontent in Confederate
Louisiana," Louisiana History,II No. 4 (fall 1961), 425.
- C. A. Brasseaux, "Ozeme Carriere and
The St. Landry Jayhawkers," Attakapas Gazette, XIII No. 4 (Winter 1978),
- Ibid., 187.
- Ibid., 188; G. D. Daigle, "The Robin
Hood of Mallet Woods," La Voix des Prairies, XI No. 41 (April 1990),
- Depositions of Dejean, Guidry, Young,
Jeansonne, and Savoy , Official Records, Armies, Ser. I, Vol. XXXIV. Pt.
- Ibid., 963-964.
- Ibid., 965.
- Ibid., 965-966.
- Ibid., 966-967.
- Ibid., 978; Brasseaux," Ozeme Carriere
and the St. Landry Jayhawkers," 188 .
- Officials Records, Armies, Ser. I, Vol.
XXXIV, Pt. 2, 962; also Brasseaux, "Ozeme Carriere," 188-189.
- Gercie D. Daigle, "Robin Hood of Mallet
Woods," La Voix des Prairies, II, No. 41, 34; Brasseau, "Ozeme Carriere,"
- A. W. Bergeron, "Dennis Haynes and His
Thrilling Narrative ...of Western Louisiana," Louisiana History, XXXVIII,
No. 1, 36-37.
- Official Records, Armies, Ser. I, Vol.
XLVIII, Pt. 1, 1431.
- Bergeron, "Dennis Haynes," 36-38.
- G. P. Whittington, Rapides Parish,
Louisiana: A History (Baton Rouge: 1932), 146.
- Lt. John C. Sibley Diary, quoted in
Shreveport Times, November 3, 1957.
- Three letters, Official Records,
Armies, Ser. I, Vol. XXXIV, Pt. 2, 972-973.
- Whittington, Rapides Parish, Louisiana:
A History, 146; J. O. Swanson, "White Man Failure: Rapides Parish etc.,"
Louisiana History, XXXI, No. 1, 53.
- Letters, Surget and Elgee to Gen.
dePolignac, Official Records, Armies, Ser. I, Vol. XXXIV, Pt. 2, 944-946,
- Letters to Hebert and Col. Burleson,
Official Records, Armies, Ser. I, Vol. XXVI. Pt. 2, 194-195.
- Official Records, Armies, Ser. I, vol.
XLVIII, Pt. 1, 143.
- Ibid., Ser. I, Vol. XXXII, Pt. 3,
- Ibid., Ser. I, Vol. XLVIII, Pt. 1,
- E. Taylor, "Discontent in Confederate
Louisiana," Louisiana History, II No. 4 (Fall 1961), 426. Four sets of the
writer great granparents lived in Imperial Calcasieu during the Civil
War. The war was utter heartbreak on both sides of his family, with some
being Union sympathizers and others, including his Grandfather Block and
his 3 brothers who were Confederate cannoneers at Sabine Pass, Also three
great uncles, two by marriage, in the Confederate Army were killed in the
fighting in Louisiana, including Pvt. Isaac Bonsall of Mouton Div. at
Mansfield. Two great uncles and a great grandfather, Duncan Smith of
Cameron, were Union spies in Calcasieu Parish.